Abstract

Thin films are fabricated from arrays of silver nanorods with thicknesses of 160nm and 200nm, to function as a metamaterial. The negative refractive index and negative permeability are retrieved from measured reflection and transmission coefficients using walk-off interferometer in the visible regime. A negative-index-material thin film with negative permittivity or (and) permeability can be produced by glancing angle deposition.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nat. Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photon. 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photon. 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Yuan, U. K. Chettiar, W. Cai, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 15, 1076 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and Z.-Y. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Chaney, Z.-Y. Zhang, and Y.-P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Science 305, 788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

A. N. Lagarkov and A. K. Sarychev, Phys. Rev. B 53, 6318 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Cai, W.

Chaney, S. B.

S. B. Chaney, Z.-Y. Zhang, and Y.-P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and Z.-Y. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Depine, R. A.

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

El-Kady, I.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, C.

A. S. Taflove and C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method(Artech House, 2005).

Ho, K. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, Y.-J.

Kildishev, A. V.

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagarkov, A. N.

A. N. Lagarkov and A. K. Sarychev, Phys. Rev. B 53, 6318 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

Y.-J. Jen, A. Lakhtakia, C.-W. Yu, and C.-T. Lin, Opt. Express 17, 7784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-T.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nat. Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, J. J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Science 305, 788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Express 11, 735 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Sigalas, M. M.

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, Science 308, 502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Science 305, 788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taflove, A. S.

A. S. Taflove and C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method(Artech House, 2005).

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Science 305, 788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.-I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Young, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-W.

Yuan, H. K.

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nat. Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.-Y.

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and Z.-Y. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Chaney, Z.-Y. Zhang, and Y.-P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

S. B. Chaney, Z.-Y. Zhang, and Y.-P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and Z.-Y. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. B. Chaney, Z.-Y. Zhang, and Y.-P. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and Z.-Y. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nat. Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photon. 1, 224 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photon. 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

I. El-Kady, M. M. Sigalas, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 62, 15299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Lagarkov and A. K. Sarychev, Phys. Rev. B 53, 6318 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Science 305, 788 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, Science 308, 502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. S. Taflove and C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method(Artech House, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of silver NRA films with thickness of (a)  160 nm and (b)  200 nm . The electric field of the illuminating light is either p-polarized E p or s-polarized E s ; k is the direction of the propagation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

p- and s-polarized transmittance spectra of silver NRA film with thickness of (a)  160 nm and (b)  200 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnetic field component Hy mapped onto x - z plane in pair of silver nanorods for (a)–(c)  160 nm -thick and (d)–(f)  200 nm -thick NRA films illuminated by p-polarized plane wave (whose electric field E p is parallel to the x- direction) at three wavelengths, 532, 639, and 690 nm .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Equivalent Refractive Indices, Relative Impedances, Relative Permittivities, and Relative Permeabilities of the Silver NRA of Thickness 160 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Equivalent Refractive Indices, Relative Impedances, Relative Permittivities, and Relative Permeabilities of the Silver NRA of Thickness 200 nm

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