Abstract

Silica-clad optical fibers comprising a core of crystalline germanium were drawn using a molten core technique. With respect to previous fibers drawn using a borosilicate cladding, the present fibers exhibit negligible oxygen despite being fabricated at more than twice the melting point of the germanium. The counterintuitive result of less oxygen when the fiber is drawn at a higher temperatures is discussed. The measured propagation loss for the fiber was 0.7dB/cm at 3.39μm, which is the lowest loss reported to date.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Petrovich, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Davis, R. Rice, A. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, and J. Ballato, Appl. Opt. 49, 5163 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Stolen, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunication 1, M.Islam, ed. (Springer, 2004); see Appendix A2.5.
  8. O. Rustgi, J. Nodvik, and G. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 122, 1131 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. McAfee, R. Laudise, and R. Hozack, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 555 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Nakamura and T. Hibiya, Int. J. Thermophys. 13, 1061 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Davis, R. Rice, A. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, and J. Ballato, Appl. Opt. 49, 5163 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2007

C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Nakamura and T. Hibiya, Int. J. Thermophys. 13, 1061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. McAfee, R. Laudise, and R. Hozack, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 555 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1961

O. Rustgi, J. Nodvik, and G. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 122, 1131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Petrovich, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, A.

Ballato, J.

R. Davis, R. Rice, A. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, and J. Ballato, Appl. Opt. 49, 5163 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baril, N.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burka, L.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R.

Finlayson, C.

C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P.

R. Davis, R. Rice, A. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, and J. Ballato, Appl. Opt. 49, 5163 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalan, V.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, T.

R. Davis, R. Rice, A. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, and J. Ballato, Appl. Opt. 49, 5163 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, N.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Petrovich, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibiya, T.

S. Nakamura and T. Hibiya, Int. J. Thermophys. 13, 1061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hon, N.

Hozack, R.

K. McAfee, R. Laudise, and R. Hozack, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 555 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Kolis, J.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthi, M.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laudise, R.

K. McAfee, R. Laudise, and R. Hozack, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 555 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McAfee, K.

K. McAfee, R. Laudise, and R. Hozack, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 555 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, C.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, P.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mulwee, D.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura and T. Hibiya, Int. J. Thermophys. 13, 1061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nodvik, J.

O. Rustgi, J. Nodvik, and G. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 122, 1131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, A.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Petrovich, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovich, M.

Rice, R.

R. Davis, R. Rice, A. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, and J. Ballato, Appl. Opt. 49, 5163 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rustgi, O.

O. Rustgi, J. Nodvik, and G. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 122, 1131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sazio, P.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Petrovich, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. Sparks, M. Petrovich, P. Sazio, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Opt. Express 17, 18076 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stolen, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunication 1, M.Islam, ed. (Springer, 2004); see Appendix A2.5.

Weissler, G.

O. Rustgi, J. Nodvik, and G. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 122, 1131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Yazgan-Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, Opt. Express 17, 8029 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. Sazio, N. Baril, and J. Badding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 132110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. Baril, J. Sparks, P. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. Badding, and A. Peacock, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Thermophys.

S. Nakamura and T. Hibiya, Int. J. Thermophys. 13, 1061 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

K. McAfee, R. Laudise, and R. Hozack, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 555 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

C. McMillen, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, D. Mulwee, J. Kolis, R. Stolen, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, Opt. Mater. 32, 862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

O. Rustgi, J. Nodvik, and G. Weissler, Phys. Rev. 122, 1131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Stolen, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunication 1, M.Islam, ed. (Springer, 2004); see Appendix A2.5.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical micrograph of a cleaved cross section of the silica-clad germanium core optical fiber. Note the circularity and concentricity of the fiber and metallic appearance of the core. The crescent-shaped feature is a gap between concentric silica cladding tubes, used to achieve the desired core/clad ratio, that did not fully fuse together at the draw temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elemental analysis of the silica-clad germanium core optical fiber. The cladding, negative relative distance, which represents the core/clad boundary, exhibits stoichiometric SiO 2 . The core, positive relative distance, is found to be entirely germanium to within the tolerance of the measurement.

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