Abstract

We demonstrate intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The data was obtained from two fresh human coronary arteries ex vivo, showing different stages of disease. A 1.25mm diameter intravascular imaging catheter was built, comprising an angle-polished optical fiber adjacent to a 30MHz ultrasound transducer. Specific photoacoustic imaging of lipid content, a key factor in vulnerable plaques that may lead to myocardial infarction, is achieved by spectroscopic imaging at different wavelengths between 1180 and 1230nm. Simultaneous imaging with intravascular ultrasound was performed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Falk, Br. Heart J. 50, 127 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, Circulation 114, 2390 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. E. Nissen, Am. J. Cardiol. 89, 24B (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7 (2001).

2010

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. L. Su, J. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Opt. Express 18, 4889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 014901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Proc. SPIE 7564, 756408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.-Y. Hsieh, S.-L. Chen, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, and P.-C. Li, Opt. Lett. 35, 2892 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770A (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, Circulation 114, 2390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. E. Nissen, Am. J. Cardiol. 89, 24B (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7 (2001).

2000

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

E. Falk, Br. Heart J. 50, 127 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1956

R. T. Holman and P. R. Edmondson, Anal. Chem. 28, 1533 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T. J.

T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amirian, J.

Beard, P. C.

T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bilazarian, S.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burke, A. P.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casscells, W. S.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. C.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7 (2001).

Chen, S.-L.

Colombo, A.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edmondson, P. R.

R. T. Holman and P. R. Edmondson, Anal. Chem. 28, 1533 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S.

Emelianov, S. Y.

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Proc. SPIE 7564, 756408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 014901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, E.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Falk, Br. Heart J. 50, 127 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farb, A.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, K. A. A.

N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freilich, M. I.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuster, V.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garg, S.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

Holman, R. T.

R. T. Holman and P. R. Edmondson, Anal. Chem. 28, 1533 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, B.-Y.

Ishibashi, F.

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, Circulation 114, 2390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A. B.

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 014901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Proc. SPIE 7564, 756408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolodgie, F. D.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lessells, A.

N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.-C.

Ling, T.

Litovsky, S. H.

Maseri, A.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastik, F.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDicken, W. N.

N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, P. R.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, J. E.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, Circulation 114, 2390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nissen, S. E.

S. E. Nissen, Am. J. Cardiol. 89, 24B (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Northridge, D.

N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, N. D.

N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regar, E.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaar, J. A.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, C.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, S. M.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serruys, P. W.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smalling, R.

Stefanadis, C.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J. L.

Suter, M. J.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. L.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7 (2001).

van der Ent, M.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 014901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Proc. SPIE 7564, 756408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, J. L. Su, J. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, Opt. Express 18, 4889 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. J.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7 (2001).

Waxman, S.

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, Circulation 114, 2390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder, M. A.

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Cardiol.

S. E. Nissen, Am. J. Cardiol. 89, 24B (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

R. T. Holman and P. R. Edmondson, Anal. Chem. 28, 1533 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.

R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and S. M. Schwartz, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 1262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. Heart J.

E. Falk, Br. Heart J. 50, 127 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions

S. Waxman, M. I. Freilich, M. J. Suter, M. Shishkov, S. Bilazarian, R. Virmani, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Circ. Cardiovasc. Interventions 3, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

S. Waxman, F. Ishibashi, and J. E. Muller, Circulation 114, 2390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Heart J.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, W. S. Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, Eur. Heart J. 25, 1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. D. Palmer, D. Northridge, A. Lessells, W. N. McDicken, and K. A. A. Fox, Eur. Heart J. 20, 1701 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

EuroIntervention

S. Garg, P. W. Serruys, M. van der Ent, C. Schultz, F. Mastik, G. van Soest, A. F. W. van der Steen, M. A. Wilder, J. E. Muller, and E. Regar, EuroIntervention 5, 755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Med. Biol. Eng.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7 (2001).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Proc. SPIE 7564, 756408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 014901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Diagram of the experimental setup, including a detailed schematic of the catheter tip, showing the beam layout. AWG, arbitrary wave generator; DAQ, data acquisition; exp, expander; lim, limiter; bpf, bandpass filter; amp, amplifier. (b) Photograph of the catheter tip on the edge of a 10 eurocent coin.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

IVPA/IVUS imaging of an advanced human atherosclerotic plaque. (a) Histology: Oil Red O stain shows the presence of a lipid-rich plaque (*) as well as a calcified area (Ca). Lu, lumen; Pf, peri-adventitial fat. (b) IVUS image, IVPA images at (c)  1210 nm (high lipid absorption) and (d)  1230 nm (low lipid absorption). Arrowheads indicate the needle used for marking. Full spectral scans were made along the white line in (c) and (d). The spectra at the locations marked by the white dots are shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photoacoustic spectra at three locations on the white line shown in Figs. 2c, 2d. The sites at 1.4 and 1.7 mm distance from the catheter are located within the lipid-rich plaque. The corresponding PA spectra show strong resemblance to the lipid absorption reference. The site at 2.2 mm is located just outside the plaque area.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Combined IVPA/IVUS image at (a) 1210 and (b)  1230 nm of a healthy human coronary artery. (c) Average IVPA signal strength in the area indicated in (a) and (b), obtained from images at wavelengths between 1180 and 1230 nm , closely tracks the peak in the reference lipid absorption spectrum.

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