Abstract

The microstructural and microspectral characteristics of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display (VA-LCD) panel were obtained noninvasively for the first time. With 1μm axial and 2μm transversal resolutions, the cell gap profile beneath the patterned thin-film transistor of the VA-LCD panel can clearly be resolved. The thicknesses of the multiple thin-film layers and the embedded defects can also be unveiled. As far as spectral response is concerned, the light transmittance at the layer boundaries can be estimated from the measured reflectance, which is crucial information for the design of a highly transmissive panel. The color shift of the VA-LCD panel due to fabrication error was evaluated.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (4)

2001 (1)

M. Kawamura and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L621(2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

C. C. Tsai, Y. S. Lin, Y. T. Wang, W. Chang, P. K. Hsu, K. Y. Hsu, D. Y. Jheng, K. Y. Huang, and S. L. Huang, Opt. Lett. 35, 811 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, Y. F.

Chen, J. C.

Chen, J. P.

Chou, C.

Chuang, C. Y.

Dändliker, R.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, S.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Display(Wiley, 1999).

Han, C. Y.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, J. X.

Hsieh, C. H.

Hsu, K. Y.

Hsu, P. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H. S.

Huang, K. Y.

Huang, S. L.

Hunt, R. W. G.

R. W. G. Hunt, Measuring Colour, 3rd ed. (Fountain Press, 1998).

Jheng, D. Y.

Kawamura, M.

M. Kawamura, K. Sato, and S. Sato, Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops 12, 91 (2005).

M. Kawamura and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L621(2001).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. C.

Li, X. W.

Liao, K. Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. S.

Lo, C. Y.

Lo, Y. L.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, K.

M. Kawamura, K. Sato, and S. Sato, Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops 12, 91 (2005).

Sato, S.

M. Kawamura, K. Sato, and S. Sato, Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops 12, 91 (2005).

M. Kawamura and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L621(2001).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, U.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C. C.

Wang, Y. P.

Wang, Y. T.

Wei, H. C.

Ye, A. L.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Display(Wiley, 1999).

Yeh, P. S.

Yu, C. R.

Yu, L. P.

Yu, T. C.

Zhang, X. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kawamura and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L621(2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops (1)

M. Kawamura, K. Sato, and S. Sato, Proc. Int. Disp. Workshops 12, 91 (2005).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

URL: http://refractiveindex.info/?group=LC&material=MLC-6608.

R. W. G. Hunt, Measuring Colour, 3rd ed. (Fountain Press, 1998).

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Display(Wiley, 1999).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3607 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional schematic diagrams of the R pixel in the test sample. SiN x and G layers are the conducting layers of the TFT between the TFT ITO layer and the BK7 glass plate. The VA-LCD panel can be divided into three parts: TFT module, LC layer, CF module. In the active region of the TFT module, layer (1) is the BK7 substrate, layer (2) is composed of the G and SiN x layers, and layer (3) is over coat 1 ( TiO 2 /epoxy resin). The refractive indices depend on the concentrations of nitride and TiO 2 . TFT ITO is coated on the surface of SiN x . In contrast, layer (5) is over coat 2 [poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)], layer (6) is the CF, and layer (7) is another BK7 substrate. In addition, the CF module also includes a black matrix and photo spacer, where the photo spacer is the cell-gap sustainer of the VA-LCD panel. The function of the over coat is to smooth the surfaces of the TFT and CF. (b) 3D structural image scanned by this OCT system, where (c) is the lower part of (b). In (b) and (c), the scale of the z axis is a 10 × magnification of both the x axis and the y axis. CF R , CF G , and CF B are the color filters of red, green, and blue, respectively. A rendered video of (b) is shown in Media 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscopic image from the rear side of the VA-LCD by a 200 × microscope. (b) OCT en face image of the top layer of Fig. 1c, which has a comparable transverse resolution to that of (a). (i) metal layer for TFT, (ii) area of TFT integrated layers, and (iii) an etched hole in CF side for the alignment of the pretilt direction to enlarge the viewing angle. (c)  x z plane cross-section image where the distance between two square green points is the cell gap of one A-scan after refractive index calculation. (d) Cell gap thickness profile of the VA-LCD panel. The sizes of (a), (b), and (d) are all 200 μm × 200 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the A-scans of the R 2 , G 2 , and B 2 subpixels. The square marks in the A-scans locate the interface between layers (5) and (6). The three A-scans are measured from the three square areas of the inset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Displacement of color shift in CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram under normally black condition [12, 13].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Averaged Cell Gap Thickness of the Subpixels in Fig. 2b

Tables Icon

Table 2 Layer Information of R 2 Subpixel beneath the BK 7 Cover Glass

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