Abstract

We applied for the first time, to our knowledge, broadband off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (BB-OB-QEPAS) to trace NO2 detection using a broadband blue laser diode centered at 450nm. A detection limit of 18ppbv (parts in 109 by volume) for NO2 in N2 at atmospheric pressure was achieved with an average laser power of 7mW at a 1s integration time, which corresponds to a 1σ normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 4.1×109cm1W/Hz1/2. An Allan variance analysis was performed to investigate the long-term stability of the BB-OB-QEPAS-based NO2 sensor.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Alkman, J. K.

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angus, A. M.

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Atklnson, G. H.

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colles, M. J.

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elia, A.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Franco, C. D.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Harshbarger, W. R.

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugarà, P. M.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marinero, E. E.

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Peuriot, A. L.

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polzay, O.

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Robin, M. B.

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, G.

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scamarcio, G.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slezak, V.

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vankesteren, H. W.

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yi, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Opt. Lett. 34, 1594 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

W. R. Harshbarger and M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 329 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

O. Polzay and G. H. Atklnson, Anal. Chem. 54, 1485 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

G. Santiago, V. Slezak, and A. L. Peuriot, Appl. Phys. B 77, 463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Wu, W. Zhao, W. Chen, W. Zhang, and X. Gao, Appl. Phys. B 94, 85 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Alkman and H. W. Vankesteren, Appl. Phys. B 90, 197 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. M. Angus, E. E. Marinero, and M. J. Colles, Opt. Commun. 14, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

V. Slezak, G. Santiago, and A. L. Peuriot, Opt. Lasers Eng. 40, 33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, H. Yi, A. A. Kosterev, W. Chen, L. Dong, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, F. K. Tittel, and X. Gao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 103103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (1)

A. Elia, C. D. Franco, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugarà, and G. Scamarcio, Sensors 9, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

The HITRAN database can be found at http://www.hitran.com.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the developed BB-OB- QEPAS-based NO 2 sensor. Lens 1, f = 3 mm ; Lens 2, f = 75 mm ; Lens 3, f = 35 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Blue LD Emission spectrum (blue) centered at 450.11 nm and the absorption spectrum of NO 2 in the 350 600 nm wavelength range (red). (b) Measured LD emission profile (blue) associated with a Gauss profile fit (red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear dependence of the background-corrected PA signal upon the NO 2 concentration. The inset shows the PA signal at different NO 2 concentrations below 1.5 ppmv .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PA signal at different NO 2 concentrations and the background noise level.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Allan deviation plots for time series measurements of pure N 2 (blue) and 321 ppbv NO 2 in N 2 (red) associated with a t 1 / 2 slope (dashed line).

Equations (2)

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NNEA = α min P 0 Δ f = N σ ( λ ) P 0 SNR Δ f ,
σ ( λ ) P 0 = i = 1 n σ ( λ i ) P 0 g ( λ i ) = P 0 i = 1 n σ ( λ i ) g ( λ i ) ,

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