Abstract

An innovative spectroscopic technique based on balancing and cancellation of modulated signals induced by two excitation sources is reported. For its practical implementation, we used quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy as an absorption-sensing technique and applied the new approach to measure small temperature differences between two gas samples. The achieved sensitivity was 30mK in 17 s. A theoretical sensitivity analysis is presented, and the applicability of this method to isotopic measurements is discussed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Kosterev and R. F. Curl, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” International Patent WO/2007/056772 A2 (2007).
  6. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B , doi: 10.1007/s00340-010-4165-9.

2010 (1)

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845(1999).
[CrossRef]

Casa, G.

A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Castrillo, A.

A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

A. A. Kosterev and R. F. Curl, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” International Patent WO/2007/056772 A2 (2007).

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Erdélyi, M.

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gianfrani, L.

A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herndon, S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845(1999).
[CrossRef]

Kerstel, E.

A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev and R. F. Curl, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” International Patent WO/2007/056772 A2 (2007).

Kosterev, Anatoliy A.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malinovsky, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minkoff, S. E.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, I. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petra, N.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richter, D.

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saleska, S.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serebryakov, D. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shorter, J. H.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845(1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomazy, D.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B , doi: 10.1007/s00340-010-4165-9.

Zahniser, M.

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zweck, J.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

A. Castrillo, G. Casa, E. Kerstel, and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 81, 863 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Erdélyi, D. Richter, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 75, 289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, A. A. Kosterev, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B 100, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, Anatoliy A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Werle, “Accuracy and precision of laser spectrometers for trace gas sensing in the presence of optical fringes and atmospheric turbulence,” Appl. Phys. B , doi: 10.1007/s00340-010-4165-9.

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, R. Jimenez, S. Herndon, S. Saleska, and M. Zahniser, J. Mod. Opt. 52, 2309 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. A. Silver and D. J. Kane, Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 845(1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. A. Kosterev and R. F. Curl, “Modulation cancellation method in laser spectroscopy,” International Patent WO/2007/056772 A2 (2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of QEPAS-MOCAM ratiometer: QTF, quartz tuning fork; FC1, FC2, 50 50 optical fiber couplers; CEU, control electronics unit; f (sync), synchronization signal from CEU; f (mod), modulation signal for the DL2 driver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratiometer validation and calibration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Allan deviation of the gas-mixing temperature as a function of the integration time.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U j = k j ( P 1 S 1 j P 2 S 2 j ) ± δ j ,
U R = k R ( P 1 S 1 R P 2 S 2 R ) = 0 ± δ R .
P 2 = P 1 S 1 R S 2 R ± δ R k R S 2 R .
U A = k A P 1 S 2 A ( S 1 A S 2 A S 1 R S 2 R ) ± k A k R S 2 A S 2 R δ R ± δ A .
Δ r r 1 U A 1 ( U A ± δ 2 ) ,
δ T = 1 d r / d T S 2 δ 2 k P 1 .
Δ T = r d r / d T U A U A 1 = C U A U A 1 .
δ T = r d r / d T δ 2 U A 1 .

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