Abstract

We present comprehensive studies on thin diffraction lenses made of arrays of subwavelength, parallel nanoslits in a gold film. Such a nanoslit lens can operate either as a conventional convex or concave lens. The lenses can be designed to focus linearly polarized light with polarization either perpendicular (TM-lens) or parallel to the slits (TE-lens), while the orthogonal polarization diverges when passing through the lens. The designs of each lens are initially built on the dispersion relations for wave propagation through a parallel-plate waveguide. Both TM- and TE-lenses were realized experimentally, and full-wave numerical simulations fully support the experimental results.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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Errata

Satoshi Ishii, Alexander V. Kildishev, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Kuo-Ping Chen, and Vladimir P. Drachev, "Metal nanoslit lenses with polarization-selective design: erratum," Opt. Lett. 36, 1244-1244 (2011)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-36-7-1244

References

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2010

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, Opt. Express 18, 11683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 35407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H. S. Tae, and J. H. Lee, Opt. Express 14, 320 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 35407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A.

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chao, D.

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 35407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Du, C.

Fan, S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

Gluskin, E.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goh, X. M.

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, Opt. Express 18, 11683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Krasnoperova, A. A.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lai, B.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Legnini, D.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, Opt. Express 18, 11683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Maser, J.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McGuinness, L. P.

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menon, R.

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patel, A.

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 35407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

X. M. Goh, L. Lin, and A. Roberts, Opt. Express 18, 11683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, H.

Smith, H. I.

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 35407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tae, H. S.

Verslegers, L.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirsky, Y.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, M.

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

White, J. S.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

L. Verslegers, P. B. Catrysse, Z. Yu, J. S. White, E. S. Barnard, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, Nano Lett. 9, 235(2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, X. M. Goh, L. P. McGuinness, and A. Roberts, Nano Lett. 10, 1936 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 35407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. Yun, B. Lai, Z. Cai, J. Maser, D. Legnini, E. Gluskin, Z. Chen, A. A. Krasnoperova, Y. Vladimirsky, and F. Cerrina, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Relative phases plotted against the width of the gold parallel-plate waveguide for 531 nm light. The length of the waveguide d is 600 nm . Inset, schematic image of a parallel-plate waveguide. (b)–(e) Schematic images of TM- and TE-lenses in TM- and TE-polarized light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modeling a nanoslit lens by point sources in 2D. (a) Relative phases retrieved from a point source at F ( 0 μm , 15 μm ) ; (b) estimated phases of the fabricated TM-lens; (c), (d) irradiance plots of the emission from the point sources in (a) and (b), respectively. In (c) and (d), each color scale is normalized to its maximum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images for the TM-lens (top) and the TE-lens (bottom).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Irradiance of the transmitted light through the nanoslit lenses. (a), (b) Measurement results for the TM-lens; (c), (d) measurement results for the TE-lens; (e), (f) simulations for the TM-lens; (g), (h) simulations for the TE-lens. Incident illumination is TM polarized for (a), (c), (e), and (g) and TE-polarized for (b), (d), (f), and (h). In (a)–(h), color scale is normalized to its maximum. Cross section at the focus distance for the (i) TM-lens ( z = 15 μm ) with TM-polarized light and for the (j) TE-lens ( z = 16 μm ) with TE-polarized light. Cross sections at x = 0 μm for the (k) TM-lens and the (l) TE-lens. In (i)–(l), each curve is normalized to its maximum.

Equations (2)

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tanh ( 1 2 k 1 w ) = ε d k 2 / ( ε m k 1 ) , k 1 = β 2 ε d k 0 2 ,
tan ( 1 2 k 1 w ) = k 2 / k 1 , k 1 = ε d k 0 2 β 2 .

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