Abstract

We propose a Debye-theory-based iterative method to produce accurate phase patterns for generating highly uniform diffraction-limited multifocal arrays with a high-NA objective. It is shown that by using the Debye method, the uniformity of the diffraction-limited focal arrays can reach 99%, owing to the critical consideration of the depolarization effect associated with high-NA objectives. The generated phase patterns are implemented in fast dynamic laser printing nanofabrication for the generation of individually controlled high-quality microvoid arrays in a solid polymer material by a single exposure of a femtosecond laser beam. As a result of the high-quality multifocal arrays, functional three-dimensional photonic crystals possessing multiple stopgaps with suppression up to 80% in transmission spectra are demonstrated.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131110(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

J. W. M. Chon, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Eriksen, V. R. Daria, and J. Glückstad, Opt. Express 10, 597 (2002).
[PubMed]

1998 (3)

1986 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Jena) 35, 237 (1972).

Adachi, Y.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antolini, R.

Bewersdorf, J.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

A. H. Buist, M. Muller, J. Squier, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buist, A. H.

A. H. Buist, M. Muller, J. Squier, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

Chon, J. W. M.

J. W. M. Chon, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A.

Clark, R. L.

Cole, D. G.

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V. R.

Dearden, G.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Edwardson, S.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, R. L.

Fearon, E.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Froner, E.

Gan, X.

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131110(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. M. Chon, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Jena) 35, 237 (1972).

Glückstad, J.

Grier, D. G.

Y. Roichman and D. G. Grier, Opt. Lett. 31, 1675 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131110(2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhou, M. J. Ventura, M. Vanner, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 29, 2240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. M. Chon, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Advanced Optical Imaging Theory (Springer, 1999).

Hell, S. W.

Jenness, N. J.

Jia, B.

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131110(2005).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, M. S.

Kato, J.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

M. Yamaji, H. Kawashima, J. Suzuki, and S. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P. S.

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, Z.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G.

Liu, D.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

Muller, M.

A. H. Buist, M. Muller, J. Squier, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C. H.

Padgett, M. J.

Paganin, D. M.

Pavlov, K. M.

Pavone, F. S.

Perrie, W.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pick, R.

Podorov, S. G.

Roichman, Y.

Sacconi, L.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Jena) 35, 237 (1972).

Sayre, D.

Sharp, M.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, S. H.

Squier, J.

A. H. Buist, M. Muller, J. Squier, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, J.

M. Yamaji, H. Kawashima, J. Suzuki, and S. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Takeyasu, N.

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

M. Yamaji, H. Kawashima, J. Suzuki, and S. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vanner, M.

Ventura, M. J.

G. Zhou, M. J. Ventura, M. Vanner, and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 29, 2240 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wackerman, C. C.

Watkins, K.

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wulff, K. D.

Yamaji, M.

M. Yamaji, H. Kawashima, J. Suzuki, and S. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Kato, N. Takeyasu, Y. Adachi, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaji, H. Kawashima, J. Suzuki, and S. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. M. Chon, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, X. Gan, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131110(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Z. Kuang, D. Liu, W. Perrie, S. Edwardson, M. Sharp, E. Fearon, G. Dearden, and K. Watkins, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 6582 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. H. Buist, M. Muller, J. Squier, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 192, 217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optik (Jena) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Jena) 35, 237 (1972).

Other (1)

M. Gu, Advanced Optical Imaging Theory (Springer, 1999).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (281 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for the DLP nanofabrication system. M, mirror; PM, phase modulation; BS, beam splitter; DM, dichroic mirror; O, objective; FP, focal plane; BAP, back aperture plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Phase pattern consisting of 1080 × 1080 (256 gray levels) pixels for a 200-spot array; (b) calculated intensity distribution from the phase pattern using the Debye integral; (c) density plot for one focal spot in the array; (d) density plot for a single focal spot; (e) intensity cross sections along the marked color lines of the spots. The scale bar is 5 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dependence of uniformity and rms error on the number of iterations calculated using the Debye method and the GS algorithm; (b) transmission optical microscopic image of a fabricated 200-void array (Media 1); (c) a 100-void array with a Y-shaped defect fabricated by removing some of the focal spots; (d) a 100-void array with a Y-shaped defect fabricated by enhancing the exposure intensity of some of the focal spots. Scale bar, 5 μm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of 3D FCC void PhCs with lattice constants (a)  3.5 μm and (b)  4 μm . The gray areas are the absorption bands of the material. The dependence of the stopgap positions on the lattice constant is shown in (c).

Equations (4)

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I = | E x | 2 + | E y | 2 + | E z | 2 .
M n k = M n 1 k I im k I n k ,
E ¯ im = I im M exp ( i Φ im ) .
u = 1 I max I min I max + I min ,

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