Abstract

We present a novel single-step fabrication approach, based on optical phase engineering, for tunable complex photonic chiral lattices of diverse geometries in a large area. By means of engineered reconfigurable phase patterns, we computationally simulate as well as experimentally investigate these complex structures. We show the generation of both periodic right- and left-handed chiral structures as well as photonic transversely quasi-crystallographic chiral structures. These complex chiral lattices are also demonstrated in a photorefractive material, and the lattice formation is analyzed by plane-wave-guided imaging as well as diffraction pattern imaging. Furthermore, complex photonic chiral structures with engineered tunable relative phase shifts between adjacent spiral units realizable in a single step are explored and analyzed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Toader and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 66, 0166101 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. K. Pang, J. C. W. Lee, H. F. Lee, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Cheng, Opt. Express 13, 7615 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Thiel, H. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 35, 166 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Pendry, Science 306, 1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lee and C. Chan, Opt. Express 13, 8083 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

J. Xavier, P. Rose, B. Terhalle, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 34, 2625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and E. L. Thomas, Adv. Mater. 19, 1403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Lee and C. Chan, Opt. Express 13, 8083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Pang, J. C. W. Lee, H. F. Lee, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Cheng, Opt. Express 13, 7615 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, Science 306, 1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

O. Toader and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 66, 0166101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bita, I.

I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and E. L. Thomas, Adv. Mater. 19, 1403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blanford, C. F.

E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boguslawski, M.

J. Xavier, M. Boguslawski, P. Rose, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Adv. Mater. 22, 356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C.

Chan, C. T.

Charlton, M. D. B.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, P.

Choi, T.

I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and E. L. Thomas, Adv. Mater. 19, 1403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dedman, E. R.

E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denz, C.

J. Xavier, M. Boguslawski, P. Rose, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Adv. Mater. 22, 356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xavier, P. Rose, B. Terhalle, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 34, 2625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efremidis, N.

Fischer, H.

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Y.

John, S.

O. Toader and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 66, 0166101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, J.

J. Xavier, M. Boguslawski, P. Rose, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Adv. Mater. 22, 356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xavier, P. Rose, B. Terhalle, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 34, 2625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. F.

Lee, J.

Lee, J. C. W.

Linden, S.

M. Wegener and S. Linden, Phys. Today 63, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

Misawa, H.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y. K.

Parker, G. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Science 306, 1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, P.

J. Xavier, M. Boguslawski, P. Rose, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Adv. Mater. 22, 356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xavier, P. Rose, B. Terhalle, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 34, 2625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seet, K. K.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, D. N.

E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and E. L. Thomas, Adv. Mater. 19, 1403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tam, W. Y.

Terhalle, B.

Thiel, M.

M. Thiel, H. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 35, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, E. L.

I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and E. L. Thomas, Adv. Mater. 19, 1403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

O. Toader and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 66, 0166101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tuberfield, A. J.

E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

M. Thiel, H. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 35, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, M. E.

I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and E. L. Thomas, Adv. Mater. 19, 1403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Thiel, H. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 35, 166 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegener and S. Linden, Phys. Today 63, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xavier, J.

J. Xavier, M. Boguslawski, P. Rose, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Adv. Mater. 22, 356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xavier, P. Rose, B. Terhalle, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Opt. Lett. 34, 2625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

Zhou, J.

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zoorob, M. E.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (3)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Bita, T. Choi, M. E. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and E. L. Thomas, Adv. Mater. 19, 1403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xavier, M. Boguslawski, P. Rose, J. Joseph, and C. Denz, Adv. Mater. 22, 356 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A (1)

B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Opt. A 11, 114003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Nature 404, 740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. (1)

E. R. Dedman, D. N. Sharp, A. J. Tuberfield, C. F. Blanford, and R. G. Denning, Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 3, 79 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

O. Toader and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 66, 0166101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

M. Wegener and S. Linden, Phys. Today 63, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. B. Pendry, Science 306, 1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Computer simulation of the light- intensity distribution of the interference pattern for hexagonal right-handed (RH) as well as left-handed (LH) photonic chiral structures using 6 + 1 beam geometry. (a) 3D interference intensity distribution for RH structures. (c) Intensity profile in x z plane. (b) and (d) correspond to (a) and (c) for LH photonic chiral structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental scheme (HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; MO, microscope objective; PH, pinhole; L, lens; BS, beam splitter; FF, Fourier filter). (b)–(e) Small portion of the total large area intensity distribution of x y plane for: left column, computer simulations; right column, respective experimental results; (b) and (c), right-handed photonic chiral structures; (d) and (e), eightfold photonic transversely quasi-crystallographic chiral structures. (Eightfold symmetry is highlighted.) All scale bars = 8 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaging along the z axis of different x y planes within a normalized distance with central region highlighted. Upper row, (a)–(d) periodic LH photonic chiral lattice structures. Lower row, (e)–(h) eightfold symmetry transversely PQC chiral lattice structures. (Central region is highlighted.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photonic quasi-crystallographic complex photonic chiral lattices fabricated in SBN:Ce (a) Portion of the real lattice image of x y plane of eightfold photonic quasi-crystallographic photonic chiral lattice. (b) Far-field diffraction pattern of (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Smoothly changing in-plane relative phase variation. (b) Alternatively changing in-plane phase shift. (c) and (d) Simulation and experimental verification of the intensity distribution in x y plane of (a), respectively. All scale bars = 8 μm . The dotted lines highlight the relative phase shift.

Equations (1)

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I ( r ) = i = 0 n | E i | 2 + i = 0 n j = 0 j i n E i E j * · exp [ i ( k i k j ) · r + i ψ i j ] ,

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