Abstract

A method for making aerogel doped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) produces a composite material with a well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance peak at 520nm. The width of the extinction feature indicates the GNPs are well dispersed in the aerogel, making it suited to optical study. A simple effective medium approximation cannot explain the peak extinction wavelengths. The plasmonic field extends on a scale where aerogel cannot be considered isotropic, so a new model is required: a 5nm glass coating on the GNPs models the extinction spectrum of the composite material, with air (aerogel), methanol (alcogel), or toluene filling the pores.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Fricke and G. Reichenauer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95–96, 1135 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. M. Pajonk, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 307 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.
  4. M. D. W. Grogan, L. Xiao, T. A. Birks, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, R.England, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, and S.Heck, S. A. Maier, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Control of nanoparticle aggregation in aerogel hosts.”
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
    [PubMed]
  8. D. D. Smith, L. A. Snow, L. Sibille, and E. Ignont, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285, 256 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Barnes, J. Opt. A 8, S87 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, J. Phys. Chem. B 10817290(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, Nano Lett. 6, 683(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. L. W. Hrubesh, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 335 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 438 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

W. L. Barnes, J. Opt. A 8, S87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, Nano Lett. 6, 683(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, J. Phys. Chem. B 10817290(2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, and C. D. Geddes, J. Fluoresc. 14, 677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. D. Smith, L. A. Snow, L. Sibille, and E. Ignont, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285, 256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, Chem. Mater. 11, 2837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. W. Hrubesh, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Pajonk, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Fricke and G. Reichenauer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95–96, 1135 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alencar, M. A. R. C.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. L.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, Chem. Mater. 11, 2837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, and C. D. Geddes, J. Fluoresc. 14, 677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, J. Opt. A 8, S87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

M. D. W. Grogan, L. Xiao, T. A. Birks, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, R.England, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, and S.Heck, S. A. Maier, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Control of nanoparticle aggregation in aerogel hosts.”

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

Bryant, G.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. C.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elder, I. A.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, Chem. Mater. 11, 2837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

England, R.

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

Fan, F. R.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fricke, J.

J. Fricke and G. Reichenauer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95–96, 1135 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, C. D.

K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, and C. D. Geddes, J. Fluoresc. 14, 677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grogan, M. D. W.

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

M. D. W. Grogan, L. Xiao, T. A. Birks, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, R.England, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, and S.Heck, S. A. Maier, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Control of nanoparticle aggregation in aerogel hosts.”

Hafner, J. H.

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, Nano Lett. 6, 683(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N.

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, J. Phys. Chem. B 10817290(2004).
[CrossRef]

Hickmann, J. M.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hrubesh, L. W.

L. W. Hrubesh, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. F.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ignont, E.

D. D. Smith, L. A. Snow, L. Sibille, and E. Ignont, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285, 256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, and C. D. Geddes, J. Fluoresc. 14, 677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leventis, N.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, Chem. Mater. 11, 2837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. F.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. B.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, H.

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, Nano Lett. 6, 683(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

M. D. W. Grogan, L. Xiao, T. A. Birks, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, R.England, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, and S.Heck, S. A. Maier, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Control of nanoparticle aggregation in aerogel hosts.”

Meneghetti, M. R.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Merzbacher, C. I.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, Chem. Mater. 11, 2837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moran, C.

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, J. Phys. Chem. B 10817290(2004).
[CrossRef]

Murai, S.

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, K.

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nehl, C. L.

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, Nano Lett. 6, 683(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pajonk, G. M.

G. M. Pajonk, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reichenauer, G.

J. Fricke and G. Reichenauer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95–96, 1135 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ren, B.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolison, D. R.

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, Chem. Mater. 11, 2837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rollings, M. D.

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

Sibille, L.

D. D. Smith, L. A. Snow, L. Sibille, and E. Ignont, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285, 256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. D.

D. D. Smith, L. A. Snow, L. Sibille, and E. Ignont, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285, 256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snow, L. A.

D. D. Smith, L. A. Snow, L. Sibille, and E. Ignont, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285, 256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Souza, R. F.

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Szmacinski, H.

K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, and C. D. Geddes, J. Fluoresc. 14, 677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tam, F.

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, J. Phys. Chem. B 10817290(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z. O.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

Wang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

Wu, D. Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, L.

M. D. W. Grogan, L. Xiao, T. A. Birks, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, R.England, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, and S.Heck, S. A. Maier, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Control of nanoparticle aggregation in aerogel hosts.”

Xiao, L. M.

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

Yang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. S.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. F. Souza, M. A. R. C. Alencar, E. C. da Silva, M. R. Meneghetti, and J. M. Hickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201902 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

N. Leventis, I. A. Elder, D. R. Rolison, M. L. Anderson, and C. I. Merzbacher, Chem. Mater. 11, 2837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc. (1)

K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Szmacinski, and C. D. Geddes, J. Fluoresc. 14, 677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

L. W. Hrubesh, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Murai, K. Fujita, K. Nakanishi, and K. Hirao, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 438 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fricke and G. Reichenauer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95–96, 1135 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Pajonk, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 225, 307 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Smith, L. A. Snow, L. Sibille, and E. Ignont, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 285, 256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

W. L. Barnes, J. Opt. A 8, S87 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

F. Tam, C. Moran, and N. Halas, J. Phys. Chem. B 10817290(2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 136 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, Nano Lett. 6, 683(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, D. Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. O. Tian, Nature 464, 392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370(1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[PubMed]

M. D. W. Grogan, M. D. Rollings, L. M. Xiao, W. J. Wadsworth, R. England, S. A. Maier, and T. A. Birks, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE21.

M. D. W. Grogan, L. Xiao, T. A. Birks, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, R.England, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK, and S.Heck, S. A. Maier, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Control of nanoparticle aggregation in aerogel hosts.”

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Extinction spectra and (inset) photographs of (a) undoped aerogel and (b) plasmonic aerogel doped with 50 nm GNPs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized measured extinction (red dashed curve) and modeled σ ext (solid black curve) of 51 nm GNPs in water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized measured extinction (red curves) and modeled σ ext (black curves) of 51 nm GNPs in aerogel [(1), modeled n eff = 1.2 ] and alcogel [(2), n eff = 1.4 ]. (1a) is the modeled σ ext for n eff = 1.05 , the measured effective index of the aerogel. (b) Modeled near-field electric field around the GNP, normalized to the incident electric field. The position of the GNP is marked by the shaded area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized measured extinction (red lines, marked e) and modeled σ ext (black lines, marked m) of 51 nm GNPs in aerogel (1), alcogel (2), and toluene-filled wet-gel (3). The modeling uses our silica-coated GNP model, with pores filled with the refractive index of air, methanol, and toluene, respectively. The modeled λ SPR is within 1 nm of the experimental data in all cases. (b) Modeled normalized electric field around the silica-coated GNP (dashed curves) compared with an uncoated GNP (solid curves) in air (red curves) and in methanol (black curves). The positions of the GNP and silica coat are marked by the schematic circles.

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