Abstract

We investigated the insertion and return losses of optical fiber connections with various air-filled gaps. Such gaps might occur when a fiber connection using physical contact unexpectedly fails, resulting in imperfect physical contact. The optical performance of these fiber connections depends on wavelength and gap size. We revealed that the measured optical performance of fiber connections with an imperfect physical contact, i.e., with an air-filled gap, might deteriorate to 18dB for insertion loss and 9.4dB for return loss at worst.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Shinohara, IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(9), 72 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).
  4. W. C. Young, “Optical fiber connectors and splices,” presented at the Short Course Notes in Optical Fiber Communication ’91, San Diego, Calif., USA, February 18–22, 1991.
  5. M. Kihara, S. Tomita, and T. Haibara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Kevern, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA93.
  7. M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.
  8. M. Kihara, M. Uchino, M. Omachi, and H. Izumita, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWE4.
  9. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1985).
  10. N. Kashima, Passive Optical Components for Optical Fiber Transmission (Artech House, 1995).
  11. T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, and R. Arioka, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1232 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1689 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Kihara, S. Tomita, and T. Haibara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Shinohara, IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(9), 72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1689 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, and R. Arioka, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

Arioka, R.

T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, and R. Arioka, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Haibara, T.

M. Kihara, S. Tomita, and T. Haibara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izumita, H.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

M. Kihara, M. Uchino, M. Omachi, and H. Izumita, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWE4.

Kanayama, K.

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1689 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kashima, N.

N. Kashima, Passive Optical Components for Optical Fiber Transmission (Artech House, 1995).

Keck, D. B.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kevern, J.

J. Kevern, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA93.

Kihara, M.

M. Kihara, S. Tomita, and T. Haibara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

M. Kihara, M. Uchino, M. Omachi, and H. Izumita, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWE4.

Kuwaki, N.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

Morrow, A. J.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, R.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

Nagasawa, S.

T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, and R. Arioka, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, R.

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1689 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Omachi, M.

M. Kihara, M. Uchino, M. Omachi, and H. Izumita, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWE4.

Onose, H.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

Satake, T.

T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, and R. Arioka, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shinohara, H.

H. Shinohara, IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(9), 72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shintaku, T.

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1689 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sonoda, H.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

Sugita, E.

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1689 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. A.

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, S.

M. Kihara, S. Tomita, and T. Haibara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, M.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

M. Kihara, M. Uchino, M. Omachi, and H. Izumita, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWE4.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1985).

Young, W. C.

W. C. Young, “Optical fiber connectors and splices,” presented at the Short Course Notes in Optical Fiber Communication ’91, San Diego, Calif., USA, February 18–22, 1991.

Yuki, Y.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Shinohara, IEEE Commun. Mag. 43(9), 72 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Kihara, S. Tomita, and T. Haibara, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, and D. A. Thompson, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1623 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, and R. Arioka, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, and T. Shintaku, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1689 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

W. C. Young, “Optical fiber connectors and splices,” presented at the Short Course Notes in Optical Fiber Communication ’91, San Diego, Calif., USA, February 18–22, 1991.

J. Kevern, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JWA93.

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, and N. Kuwaki, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper JWA4.

M. Kihara, M. Uchino, M. Omachi, and H. Izumita, in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper NWE4.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1985).

N. Kashima, Passive Optical Components for Optical Fiber Transmission (Artech House, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Wavelength dependence of fiber connections with air-filled gap. (a) Insertion loss results; (b) return loss results.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Gap-size dependence of fiber connections with air-filled gap. (a) Insertion loss results; (b) return loss results.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical performance of SC connector fault samples with air-filled gap. (a) Insertion loss results; (b) return loss results.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R0=(n1-nn1+n)2,
T=(1-R0)2(1-R0)2+4R0sin2(2πnS/λ),
R=4R0sin2(2πnS/λ)(1-R0)2+4R0sin2(2πnS/λ).
A=[(λS2πnω2)2+1]-1.
T=A(1-R0)2(1-AR0)2+4AR0sin2(2πnS/λ),
R=[{1+A(1-2R0)}2-4A(1-2R0)sin2(2πnS/λ)]R0(1-AR0)2+4AR0sin2(2πnS/λ).

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