Abstract

We present a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer fully capable of controlling both amplitude and phase of the two complex pupil functions in each eye of the subject. A special feature of the instrument is its comparatively simple setup. A single reflective liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator working in pure phase modulation generates the phase profiles for both pupils simultaneously. In addition, another liquid crystal spatial light modulator working in transmission operates in pure intensity modulation to produce a large variety of pupil masks for each eye. Subjects perform visual tasks through any predefined variations of the complex pupil function for both eyes. As an example of the system efficiency, we recorded images of the stimuli through the system as they were projected at the subject’s retina. This instrument proves to be extremely versatile for designing and testing novel ophthalmic elements and simulating visual outcomes, as well as for further research of binocular vision.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, J. M. Lindacher, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 15, 16177 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernandez, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 5273 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 26, 746 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 34, 2628 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, 27, A48 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. G. Pelli, Spatial Vis. 10, 437 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 17, 11013 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernandez, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 5273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, 27, A48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

2004

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 12, 4059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, J. S. Mc Lellan, and S. A. Burns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 809 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).

2001

2000

1997

D. G. Pelli, Spatial Vis. 10, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernandez, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 5273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, 27, A48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, J. Vis. 9, 19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 34, 2628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 17, 11013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, J. M. Lindacher, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 15, 16177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 12, 4059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).

E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 26, 746 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, F. Vargas-Martin, S. Goelz, and P. Artal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1388 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ayala, D. B.

Burns, S. A.

Chen, L.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E. J.

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernandez, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 5273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 12, 4059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, E. J.

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, 27, A48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 34, 2628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 17, 11013 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).

E. J. Fernández, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 26, 746 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goelz, S.

Iglesias, I.

Lindacher, J. M.

Manzanera, S.

G. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, J. Vis. 9, 19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Manzanera, P. M. Prieto, D. B. Ayala, J. M. Lindacher, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 15, 16177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Prieto, E. J. Fernandez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 12, 4059 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).

Mc Lellan, J. S.

Norrby, S.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, D. G.

D. G. Pelli, Spatial Vis. 10, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, G.

G. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, J. Vis. 9, 19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piers, P.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).

Piers, P. A.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, P. M.

Roorda, A.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, J. Vis. 7, 14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, J. Vis. 7, 14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, C.

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernandez, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 5273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabernero, J.

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernandez, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 5273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tarrant, J.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, J. Vis. 7, 14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vargas-Martin, F.

Weiser, P.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, J. Vis. 7, 14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

P. A. Piers, E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 4601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Tabernero, C. Schwarz, E. J. Fernandez, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52, 5273 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Refract. Surg.

E. J. Fernández, S. Manzanera, P. Piers, and P. Artal, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S634 (2002).

J. Vis.

P. Artal, L. Chen, E. J. Fernández, B. Singer, S. Manzanera, and D. R. Williams, J. Vis. 4, 281 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Pérez, S. Manzanera, and P. Artal, J. Vis. 9, 19 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, J. Vis. 7, 14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Spatial Vis.

D. G. Pelli, Spatial Vis. 10, 437 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, 27, A48 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the LC-based instrument. See text for detailed description.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Images of pupil planes when setting pupil apertures with the LC-SLM [(a) and (b)].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured contrast versus frequency and versus set contrast, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Images of a letter E, subtending 0.4 deg, taken through the AO instrument for different pupil shapes (marked on the left) with or without induced spherical aberration (SA).

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