Abstract

We have constructed a compact and robust optical frequency standard based around iodine vapor loaded into the core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). A 532nm laser was frequency locked to one hyperfine component of the R(56) 32-0 I1272 transition using modulation transfer spectroscopy. The stabilized laser demonstrated a frequency stability of 2.3×1012 at 1s, almost an order of magnitude better than previously reported for a laser stabilized to a gas-filled HC-PCF. This limit is set by the shot noise in the detection system. We present a discussion of the current limitations to the performance and a route to improve the performance by more than an order of magnitude.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

H. Katori, Nat. Photon. 5, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. S. Margolis, Contemp. Phys. 51, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Light, F. Benabid, M. Maric, A. Luiten, and F. Couny, Opt. Lett. 32, 1323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

R. Felder, Metrologia 42, 323 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. Maisello, N. Vulpanovici, and J. W. Nibler, J. Chem. Education 80, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. Ahola, and A. Lassila, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Phys. Ispekhi 42, 669 (1999).

1987 (1)

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahola, T.

K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. Ahola, and A. Lassila, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J. P.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

Dawkins, S. T.

Delone, N. B.

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Phys. Ispekhi 42, 669 (1999).

Deng, Y. K.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ducos, F.

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

R. Felder, Metrologia 42, 323 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C. Q.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hald, J.

J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, J.

J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hummer, D. G.

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. M.

Katori, H.

H. Katori, Nat. Photon. 5, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Phys. Ispekhi 42, 669 (1999).

Kunasz, C. V.

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lassila, A.

K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. Ahola, and A. Lassila, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. Y.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

Lim, J.

Luiten, A.

Luiten, A. N.

Ma, L. S.

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maisello, T.

T. Maisello, N. Vulpanovici, and J. W. Nibler, J. Chem. Education 80, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

H. S. Margolis, Contemp. Phys. 51, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maric, M.

McFerran, J. J.

Merimaa, M.

K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. Ahola, and A. Lassila, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nibler, J. W.

T. Maisello, N. Vulpanovici, and J. W. Nibler, J. Chem. Education 80, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nyholm, K.

K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. Ahola, and A. Lassila, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J. C.

J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 4, 09004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rovera, G. D.

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stanwix, P. L.

Thapa, R.

Tillman, K. A.

Tobar, M. E.

Vulpanovici, N.

T. Maisello, N. Vulpanovici, and J. W. Nibler, J. Chem. Education 80, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallerand, J.-P.

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, B. R.

Wheeler, N.

Wu, S.

Ye, J.

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zang, E. J.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J.-J.

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Contemp. Phys. (1)

H. S. Margolis, Contemp. Phys. 51, 37 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (3)

K. Nyholm, M. Merimaa, T. Ahola, and A. Lassila, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Education (1)

T. Maisello, N. Vulpanovici, and J. W. Nibler, J. Chem. Education 80, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (1)

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 4, 09004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. D. Rovera, F. Ducos, J.-J. Zondy, O. Acef, J.-P. Wallerand, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Felder, Metrologia 42, 323 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

H. Katori, Nat. Photon. 5, 203 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Nature 434, 488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Ispekhi (1)

N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov, Phys. Ispekhi 42, 669 (1999).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. J. Bordé, J. L. Hall, C. V. Kunasz, and D. G. Hummer, Phys. Rev. A 14, 236 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Hald, J. C. Petersen, and J. Henningsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 213902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simplified overview of the optical system, with counterpropagating pump (green) and probe (blue) beams. MO, microscope objective; AOM, acoustic optical modulator; PD, photodiode; HWP, half-wave plate; V, vacuum valves. The counterpropagating beams are separated for ease of visualization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simplified overview of the electronic locking system. Insets show the experimental data obtained at the error point and directly on the photodiode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fractional frequency stability of the free-running laser (red triangles), the laser locked to the 10cm long iodine cell (blue crosses), the laser locked to the iodine-loaded HC-PCF (black squares), and the reference cavity (purple circles) against which these stabilities were measured. The limit to the frequency stabilization system for the fiber-stabilized laser (black line) is also displayed.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. We List the Sub-Doppler Resonance Frequency Width, Measured Saturation Intensity, Operational Pump and Probe Intensities and Powers, the Doppler Broadened Absorption Coefficient at the Location of the a1 Hyperfine Component, and the Fractional Depth of the Hyperfine Component with Respect to the Doppler Broadened Absorption

Metrics