Abstract

We report on the investigation and characterization of an optically tunable filtering effect, observed in a waveguide grating made of alternated strips of photocurable polymer and a mixture of azo-dye-doped liquid crystal. The grating is sandwiched between two borosilicate glasses, one of which includes an ion-exchanged channel waveguide, which confines the optical signal to be filtered. Exposure to a low power visible light beam modifies the azo-dye molecular configuration, thus allowing the filtered wavelength to be tuned over a 6.6 nm range. Simulations of the filtering response are well described with our experimental findings.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. A. Hrozhyk1, S. V. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, Opt. Express 18, 8697 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. P. Umeton, and A. Sukov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kumar, T. Sakaguchi, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Gilardi, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and G. Assanto, Opt. Express 18, 11524 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Ehrlich, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 602 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 6811 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. https://www.norlandprod.com/adhesives/NOA%2061.html .
  17. J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. WuJ. Appl. Phys. 96, 19 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. http://www.rsoftdesign.com .
  19. Beam Engineering for Advanced Measurements Co., http://www.beamco.com .

2011 (3)

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 6811 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

M. Kumar, T. Sakaguchi, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).

1990 (1)

J. E. Ehrlich, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

Assanto, G.

G. Gilardi, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and G. Assanto, Opt. Express 18, 11524 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, P.

R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).

Beccherelli, R.

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caponero, M. A.

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

Chen, R. T.

Cho, S. H.

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gilardi, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and G. Assanto, Opt. Express 18, 11524 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 6811 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donisi, D.

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

J. E. Ehrlich, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ferjani, S.

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. WuJ. Appl. Phys. 96, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gilardi, G.

Hoke, L.

Hrozhyk, U.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk1, U. A.

Jeong, G.

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. W.

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. Y.

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

Koyama, F.

M. Kumar, T. Sakaguchi, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar, T. Sakaguchi, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. WuJ. Appl. Phys. 96, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).

Park, M. Y.

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).

Sakaguchi, T.

M. Kumar, T. Sakaguchi, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 6811 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

Steeves, D. M.

Stegeman, G. I.

J. E. Ehrlich, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

Sukov, A.

Tabiryan, N.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 6811 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk1, S. V. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, Opt. Express 18, 8697 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tartarini, G.

R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).

Umeton, C.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 6811 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Caputo, L. De Sio, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, Opt. Lett. 29, 1261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C. P.

Van Thourhout, D.

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

Wu, S.

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. WuJ. Appl. Phys. 96, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

Zou, J.

Adv. Mater. (1)

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, and C. Umeton, Adv. Mater. 22, 2316 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni, G. Tartarini, and P. Bassi, Appl. Phys. B 73, 505 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. E. Ehrlich, G. Assanto, and G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Donisi, L. De Sio, R. Beccherelli, M. A. Caponero, A. d’Alessandro, and C. Umeton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumar, T. Sakaguchi, and F. Koyama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. Jeong, J. H. Lee, M. Y. Park, C. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. Lee, and B. W. Kim, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and D. Van Thourhout, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Li, S. Gauza, and S. WuJ. Appl. Phys. 96, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 6811 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, and S. Serak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soft Matter (1)

L. De Sio, S. Ferjani, G. Strangi, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, Soft Matter 7, 3739 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

https://www.norlandprod.com/adhesives/NOA%2061.html .

http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

Beam Engineering for Advanced Measurements Co., http://www.beamco.com .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the device with a zoom on the grating structure. The bottom inset sketches the orientation tilt (θ) and twist (φ) angles of the molecular director n^. The right micrograph shows the fabricated grating with LC and MR on top of the optical waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup to measure the transmitted spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmittance of the all-optical filter. Black curve, pump OFF; inset with azo dye in trans phase. Red curve, pump ON; inset with azo dye in cis form.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength shift versus NLC refractive index for three grating thicknesses and (inset) wavelength shift versus grating thickness for NLC index of 1.565.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λB=(2Λneff)/m,
n=n2+2n23.

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