Abstract

A dual-ring injection-locked fiber laser consisting of a ring of optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) and a ring of fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated for tunable millimeter-wave (mm-wave) generation. The approach combines the advantages of mm-wave generation based on OEOs and fiber lasers, which can generate a high-frequency, low-phase-noise, and a mode-hopping-free mm-wave signal with a large tuning range. A low-phase-noise mm-wave signal with a tunable frequency of 30–50 GHz and a tuning step of 10 GHz is obtained in a proof-of-concept experiment. The tuning range can be as large as 140 GHz if a high bandwidth photodetector is applied.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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X. Y. He, D. N. Wang, and C. R. Liao, J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 842 (2011).

B. Lin, M. Jiang, S. C. Tjin, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. C. Chan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Pan and J. P. Yao, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 1967 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

E. Shumakher and G. Eisenstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992).

Bordonalli, A. C.

Cannard, P. J.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

Chan, S. C.

S. C. Chan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

E. Shumakher and G. Eisenstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fice, M. J.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Firth, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

He, X. Y.

Heidemann, R.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992).

Hofstetter, R.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992).

Jiang, M.

B. Lin, M. Jiang, S. C. Tjin, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lane, P. M.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992).

Lealman, I. F.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. R.

Lin, B.

B. Lin, M. Jiang, S. C. Tjin, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, G. D.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Microw. Mag. 10, 64 (2009).

Naglic, L.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. J.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992).

Pan, S. L.

Pavlovic, L.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ponnampalam, L.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

Robertson, M.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

Robertson, M. J.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, D.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

Rogers, D. C.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, and A. J. Seeds, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 328 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

Shum, P.

B. Lin, M. Jiang, S. C. Tjin, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shumakher, E.

E. Shumakher and G. Eisenstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steed, R. J.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tjin, S. C.

B. Lin, M. Jiang, S. C. Tjin, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vidmar, M.

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C.

Wang, D. N.

Yao, J. P.

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Chan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 421 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. J. Steed, L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

T. Nagatsuma, IEEE Microw. Mag. 10, 64 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Lin, M. Jiang, S. C. Tjin, and P. Shum, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1292 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Shumakher and G. Eisenstein, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1881 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

S. L. Pan and J. P. Yao, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 1967 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, and A. J. Seeds, in Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Photonics (2006), pp. 61940C-8.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the dual-ring injection-locked fiber laser for mm-wave generation. TLS: tunable laser source; PolM: polarization modulator; PC: polarization controller; FBG: fiber Bragg grating; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifer; Pol: polarizer; PD: photodetector; EA: electrical amplifier; EBPF: electrical bandpass filter. Inset: the transmission response of the FBG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The optical spectrum of the two phase-correlated optical waves. (b) The electrical spectrum of the generated mm-wave signal (inset: enlarged view of the 40 GHz signal at SPAN=100MHz and RBW=910kHz). (c) The single sideband (SSB) phase noise spectrum when the scheme is configured to generate a 40 GHz mm-wave signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The spectra of (a) the optical signal and (b) the generated electrical signal, tuned from 30 GHz to 50 GHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The optical spectrum of the two phase-correlated optical waves with a wavelength difference of 140 GHz.

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