Abstract

We design and fabricate a wavelength-selective nonblocking 4×4 silicon optical router based on microring resonator for use in future integrated photonic interconnection networks. We successfully demonstrate 12 possible I/O routing paths and present 13 nonblocking operating states, including four broadcasting states, with worst-case extinction ratio and cross talk of 21.05 and 21.56dB, respectively. Thermal tuning is employed to compensate the resonance shift of microring resonators caused by fabrication errors and adjust the resonance to match the International Telecommunication Unit grid with the channel spacing of 100GHz.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 19, 47 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and W. Zhu, Opt. Express 19, 18945 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  10. L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, and E. Regentova, Comput. Electr. Eng. 35, 856 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.
  13. H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 19, 14233 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, and E. Regentova, Comput. Electr. Eng. 35, 856 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Beausoleil, R. G.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Briere, M.

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carrel, L.

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Doany, F. E.

Dong, P.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 19, 14233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 19, 14233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Gaffiot, F.

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jahnes, C. V.

Ji, R.

Jiang, Y.

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, and E. Regentova, Comput. Electr. Eng. 35, 856 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, E. Regentova, and E. Lu, in Proceedings of the 18th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (2006), p. 698.
[PubMed]

Kash, J. A.

Kimerling, L. C.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuekes, P. J.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuzucu, O.

Lee, B. G.

M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 19, 47 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Levy, J. S.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, O. Kuzucu, K. Saha, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Express 19, 14233 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, E.

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, E. Regentova, and E. Lu, in Proceedings of the 18th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (2006), p. 698.
[PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Michalke, T.

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mieyeville, F.

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, I.

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, N.

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Poitras, C. B.

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Poon, A. W.

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Regentova, E.

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, and E. Regentova, Comput. Electr. Eng. 35, 856 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, E. Regentova, and E. Lu, in Proceedings of the 18th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (2006), p. 698.
[PubMed]

Saha, K.

Schow, C. L.

Shacham, K.

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 15915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Snider, G. S.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, H.

Wang, S.-Y.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. S.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

Yang, M.

M. Yang, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 19, 47 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, and E. Regentova, Comput. Electr. Eng. 35, 856 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, E. Regentova, and E. Lu, in Proceedings of the 18th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (2006), p. 698.
[PubMed]

Zhang, L.

R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and W. Zhu, Opt. Express 19, 18945 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, and E. Regentova, Comput. Electr. Eng. 35, 856 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, E. Regentova, and E. Lu, in Proceedings of the 18th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (2006), p. 698.
[PubMed]

Zhou, P.

Zhu, W.

Comput. Electr. Eng. (1)

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, and E. Regentova, Comput. Electr. Eng. 35, 856 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 926 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen and A. W. Poon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

K. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. IEEE (2)

M. Briere, L. Carrel, T. Michalke, F. Mieyeville, I. O’Connor, and F. Gaffiot, Proc. IEEE 1, 738 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, Proc. IEEE 96, 230 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, E. Regentova, and E. Lu, in Proceedings of the 18th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (2006), p. 698.
[PubMed]

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, in 35th European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of the nonblocking 4 × 4 router.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electronic micrograph of the (a) parallel MRRs, (b) ellipse-based waveguide crossing, and (c) grating couplers. (d) Micrograph of the 4 × 4 nonblocking optical router.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical response spectra of 12 paths of the 4 × 4 nonblocking optical router.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical response spectra at the output port N o under its four operating states with the worst-case ER marked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical response spectra at the output ports of N o , E o , W o and S o when broadband light source is launched into the input port W i . The worst-case cross talk is marked.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Routing Paths of the Nonblocking 4 × 4 Router

Tables Icon

Table 2 Operating States of the Nonblocking 4 × 4 Router

Metrics