Abstract

We experimentally realize a nanoscale all-optical diode in a photonic crystal heterostructure with broken spatial inversion symmetry, performing independent of optical nonlinearity. The physical mechanism lies in unique dispersion relations of the photonic crystal and the transition of incident light between different electromagnetic Bloch modes. An ultrahigh transmission contrast of 103 order, a large operating bandwidth of over 50nm, and an ultralow photon intensity of less than 10kW/cm2 are reached simultaneously.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (4)

X. Y. Hu, Z. Q. Li, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, and X. P. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Poo, R. X. Wu, Z. Lin, Y. Yang, and C. T. Chan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. B 99, 187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Xin, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nature 461, 772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Serebryannikov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Serebryannikov and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 17, 13335 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

F. D. M. Haldane and S. Raghu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Y. D. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Nat. Photon. 2, 185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Z. F. Yua and Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Philip, M. Anija, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Galloa, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, and C. M. Bowden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anija, M.

R. Philip, M. Anija, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

K. Galloa, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beloglazov, M. J.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biryukov, D. A. S.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, and C. M. Bowden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blum, R.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bottger, G.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, and C. M. Bowden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bugar, I.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caglayan, H.

S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cakmakyapan, S.

S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

Y. Poo, R. X. Wu, Z. Lin, Y. Yang, and C. T. Chan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. Y.

Chen, L. W.

Chong, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nature 461, 772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, Y. D.

Z. Wang, Y. D. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chorvat, D.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chorvatjr, D.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, C. Y.

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Nat. Photon. 2, 185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, and C. M. Bowden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elsener, H.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feise, M. W.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

K. Galloa, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galloa, K.

K. Galloa, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

X. Y. Hu, Z. Q. Li, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, and X. P. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. B 99, 187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Xin, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Nat. Photon. 2, 185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haldane, F. D. M.

F. D. M. Haldane and S. Raghu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X. Y.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, Z. Q. Li, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, and X. P. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. B 99, 187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Xin, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Nat. Photon. 2, 185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, P.

P. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. B 99, 187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Xin, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 031103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Y. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Nat. Photon. 2, 185 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Z. Wang, Y. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nature 461, 772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Y. D. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Univ., 1995).

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Konorov, S. O.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuligk, A.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, J.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Li, Z. Q.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Hu, Z. Q. Li, J. X. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, and X. P. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 1803 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liguda, C.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. S.

Lin, Z.

Y. Poo, R. X. Wu, Z. Lin, Y. Yang, and C. T. Chan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. C.

C. C. Lu, X. Y. Hu, Y. B. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, X. A. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Univ., 1995).

Meyer, H. G.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morgenroth, W.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Serebryannikov and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 17, 13335 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parameswaran, K. R.

K. Galloa, G. Assanto, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

R. Philip, M. Anija, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poo, Y.

Y. Poo, R. X. Wu, Z. Lin, Y. Yang, and C. T. Chan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 093903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raghu, S.

F. D. M. Haldane and S. Raghu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

R. Philip, M. Anija, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, H.

C. Liguda, G. Bottger, A. Kuligk, R. Blum, M. Eich, H. Roth, J. Kunert, W. Morgenroth, H. Elsener, and H. G. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, and C. M. Bowden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serebryannikov, A. E.

S. Cakmakyapan, H. Caglayan, A. E. Serebryannikov, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 051103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Serebryannikov and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 17, 13335 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Serebryannikov, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shadrivov, I. V.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. E 71, 037602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skibina, N. B.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. S. Biryukov, I. Bugar, M. J. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. Chorvatjr, D. Chorvat, M. Scalora, and A. M. Zheltikov, Appl. Phys. B 78, 547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Z. Wang, Y. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nature 461, 772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Y. D. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013905 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, M. H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takanishi, Y.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tocci, M. D.

M. D. Tocci, M. J. Bloemer, M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, and C. M. Bowden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Chong, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacic, Nature 461, 772 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Large- and (b) small-scale SEM image of the MEH-PPV photonic crystal heterostructure. (c) Simulated transmittance spectra of components 1 and 2. (d) Absorption spectra of the MEH-PPV film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (a) and calculated (b) transmittance spectra of photonic crystal heterostructure. The arrow indicates the position of 780 nm . Calculated electric-field distribution for the (c) rightward and (d) leftward incidence case of the 780 nm probe light. The arrow indicates the direction of the incident light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CFCs of the 780 nm wavelength of the MEH-PPV photonic crystal heterostructure. The blue line is the light cone in MEH-PPV. The green and red lines are CFCs for components 1 and 2, respectively. Black arrows are wave vectors in MEH-PPV waveguides. The green and red arrows are the wave vectors in components 1 and 2, respectively.

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