Abstract

We propose and demonstrate hydrophobic photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). A chemical surface treatment for making PCFs hydrophobic is introduced. This repels water from the holes of PCFs, so that their optical properties remain unchanged even when they are immersed in water. The combination of a hollow core and a water-repellent inner surface of the hydrophobic PCF provides an ultracompact dissolved-gas sensor element, which is demonstrated for the sensing of dissolved ammonia gas.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Boulart, D. P. Connelly, and M. C. Mowlem, Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. J. Ha, H. H. Park, S. B. Jung, H. Ryu, and B. G. Yu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, M. K. K. Oo, Y. N. Zhu, L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, and H. Du, Opt. Eng. 47, 040502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
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P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, D. M.

Badding, J. V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baril, N. F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

Birks, T. A.

Boulart, C.

C. Boulart, D. P. Connelly, and M. C. Mowlem, Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brakel, A. V.

Cen, K. F.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, D. P.

C. Boulart, D. P. Connelly, and M. C. Mowlem, Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demokan, M. S.

Y. Han, M. K. K. Oo, Y. N. Zhu, L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, and H. Du, Opt. Eng. 47, 040502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, and C. L. Zhao, Opt. Express 13, 9014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domachuk, P.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Y. Han, M. K. K. Oo, Y. N. Zhu, L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, and H. Du, Opt. Eng. 47, 040502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

England, R.

Finlayson, C. E.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalan, V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grivas, C.

Grogan, M. D. W.

Gu, M.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T. J.

T. J. Ha, H. H. Park, S. B. Jung, H. Ryu, and B. G. Yu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

Y. Han, M. K. K. Oo, Y. N. Zhu, L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, and H. Du, Opt. Eng. 47, 040502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H.

Ho, H. L.

Hoo, Y.

Hoo, Y. L.

Hsing, H. H.

A. C. Zettlemoyer and H. H. Hsing, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 55, 637 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q. X.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffries, J. B.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Jung, S. B.

T. J. Ha, H. H. Park, S. B. Jung, H. Ryu, and B. G. Yu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Konorov, S. O.

Li, N.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mowlem, M. C.

C. Boulart, D. P. Connelly, and M. C. Mowlem, Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oo, M. K. K.

Y. Han, M. K. K. Oo, Y. N. Zhu, L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, and H. Du, Opt. Eng. 47, 040502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. H.

T. J. Ha, H. H. Park, S. B. Jung, H. Ryu, and B. G. Yu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovich, M. N.

Richardson, D. J.

Ruan, S. C.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Ryu, H.

T. J. Ha, H. H. Park, S. B. Jung, H. Ryu, and B. G. Yu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sazio, P. J. A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalora, M.

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, C. Z.

Straub, M.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Won, D. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, L. M.

Yan, J. H.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. G.

T. J. Ha, H. H. Park, S. B. Jung, H. Ryu, and B. G. Yu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zettlemoyer, A. C.

A. C. Zettlemoyer and H. H. Hsing, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 55, 637 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, C. L.

Zheltikov, A. M.

Zhu, Y. N.

Y. Han, M. K. K. Oo, Y. N. Zhu, L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, and H. Du, Opt. Eng. 47, 040502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Domachuk, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, M. Straub, and M. Gu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

A. C. Zettlemoyer and H. H. Hsing, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 55, 637 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Ha, H. H. Park, S. B. Jung, H. Ryu, and B. G. Yu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 326, 186 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

F. Wang, K. F. Cen, N. Li, J. B. Jeffries, Q. X. Huang, J. H. Yan, and Y. Chi, Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 045301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Han, M. K. K. Oo, Y. N. Zhu, L. M. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, and H. Du, Opt. Eng. 47, 040502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Anal. Chem.

C. Boulart, D. P. Connelly, and M. C. Mowlem, Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 186 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of water pulled (a) into a hydrophilic capillary and (b) out of a hydro phobic capillary by capillary forces. (c) Structure of a PCF. (d), (e) Inner surface of a PCF covered with (d) hydroxyl and (e) trimethylsilyl groups.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for making PCFs hydrophobic. Inset is a scanning electron micrograph of the cross section of the hollow-core PCF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excess attenuation of a 1 m length of the solid-core PCF due to HMDS surface modification to make it hydrophobic. Inset is a micrograph of the cross section of this PCF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Alignment of two normal (untreated) hollow-core PCFs. (b) Water from the right-hand PCF was drawn into the PCF on the left. (c) Alignment of a hydrophobic hollow-core PCF on the left and a normal hollow-core PCF on the right. (d) Water was not drawn into the hydrophobic PCF on the left.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental setup for dissolved-gas sensing. (b), (c) Normalized transmission spectra of a hydrophobic hollow-core PCF exposed (b) for various times to 35   wt. % ammonia solution and (c) for 10 min to a diluted 5.2   wt. % ammonia solution.

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