Abstract

We propose a novel structure of a photonic RF phase shifter based on the vector-sum principle. The optical signal with quadrature double-sideband modulation passes through a dual-output Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI), and the two outputs are differentially detected. Two phase-quadrature RF terms are generated, and their amplitudes can be controlled in a triangularly complementary way by changing the phase of the MZI. A full tuning range of 0°360° at 14GHz is demonstrated experimentally accompanied by nearly constant RF amplitude. The validity of using our scheme in all-optical RF phase modulation is also verified.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Zhang, L. Chang, Y. Dong, W. Xie, H. He, and W. Hu, Opt. Lett. 36, 873 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, and T.-H. Chio, IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 536 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K.-H. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and W.-Y. Choi, Opt. Lett. 30, 702(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. A. Bui, K. Ghorbani, and A. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 31, 577(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2006

L. A. Bui, K. Ghorbani, and A. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 31, 577(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and W.-Y. Choi, Opt. Lett. 30, 702(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, and T.-H. Chio, IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bui, L. A.

L. A. Bui, K. Ghorbani, and A. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 31, 577(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, and T.-H. Chio, IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chalfant, C. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.

Chang, P. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chio, T.-H.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, and T.-H. Chio, IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.-Y.

Coward, J. F.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghorbani, K.

L. A. Bui, K. Ghorbani, and A. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 31, 577(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, and T.-H. Chio, IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

Hu, W.

Jhon, Y. M.

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-H.

Lopez, E. R.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mansoori, S.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

L. A. Bui, K. Ghorbani, and A. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 31, 577(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, and T.-H. Chio, IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pastor, D.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

Yee, T. K.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

IEEE Electron. Lett.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, and T.-H. Chio, IEEE Electron. Lett. 39, 536 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E.Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T.-H. Chio, S. Mansoori, and E. R. Lopez, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 3589(2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the vector-sum RF phase shifter: PC, polarization controller; DPMZM, dual- parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator; PM, LiNbO 3 phase modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter; BPD, balanced photodetector; LNA, RF low-noise amplifier; PTMZI, phase- tunable Mach–Zehnder interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured output waveforms of the photonic RF phase shifter (averaged by 5; RF frequency, 14 GHz ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Theoretical 3D plot of RF amplitude versus optical MZI phase and RF frequency and (b) overlapped 2D plots of RF amplitude versus RF frequency at different optical MZI phases (the 1 dB bandwidth is 2 GHz ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Theoretical 3D plot of RF phase versus optical MZI phase and RF frequency and (b) overlapped 2D plots of RF phase versus RF frequency at different optical MZI phases (the 5 ° bandwidth is 1.5 GHz ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup of RF phase modulation using the fast photonic phase shifter: LPF, low-pass filter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Waveforms of the (a) baseband data source, (b) phase-modulated RF signal, and (c) baseband data after demodulation (RF frequency, 14 GHz ; baseband bitrate, 1.4 Gbps ).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e ( t ) = a exp [ j ( ω t + π / 4 ) ] + m exp [ j ( ω t ± Ω t ) ] ,
T u ( j ω ) = cos [ ( ω τ + ϕ ) / 2 ] ,
T l ( j ω ) = cos [ ( ω τ + ϕ ) / 2 + π / 2 ] ,
ϕ = π V c / V π , TE π V c / V π , TM ,
e u ( t ) = a exp [ j ( ω t + π / 4 ) ] cos [ ( ω τ + ϕ ) / 2 ] + m exp [ j ( ω t ± Ω t ) ] cos [ ( ω τ ± Ω τ + ϕ ) / 2 ] ,
e l ( t ) = a exp [ j ( ω t + π / 4 ) ] cos [ ( ω τ + ϕ ) / 2 + π / 2 ] + m exp [ j ( ω t ± Ω t ) ] cos [ ( ω τ ± Ω τ + ϕ ) / 2 + π / 2 ] .
i ( t ) = e u ( t ) × e u * ( t ) e l ( t ) × e l * ( t ) = 2 a m cos ( Ω t π / 4 ) cos ( ω τ + ϕ ± Ω τ / 2 ) .
i ( t ) = 2 a m cos ( Ω t + ω τ + ϕ ) .

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