Abstract

Chaotic semiconductor lasers have been proven attractive for fast random bit generation. To follow this strategy, simple robust systems and a systematic approach determining the required dynamical properties and most suitable conditions for this application are needed. We show that dynamics of a single mode laser with polarization-rotated feedback are optimal for random bit generation when characterized simultaneously by a broad power spectrum and low autocorrelation. We observe that successful random bit generation also is sensitive to digitization and postprocessing procedures. Applying the identified criteria, we achieve fast random bit generation rates (up to 4Gbit/s) with minimal postprocessing.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, and T. Kohno, Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications (Wiley, 2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

A. Argyris, S. Deligiannidis, E. Pikasis, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, Opt. Express 18, 18763 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Heil, A. Uchida, P. Davis, and T. Aida, Phys. Rev. A 68, 033811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aida, T.

T. Heil, A. Uchida, P. Davis, and T. Aida, Phys. Rev. A 68, 033811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, U. L.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Argyris, A.

Aviad, Y.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banks, D.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Barker, E.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Bogris, A.

Cohen, A. B.

Davis, P.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Heil, A. Uchida, P. Davis, and T. Aida, Phys. Rev. A 68, 033811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deligiannidis, S.

Dong, R.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dray, J.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Ferguson, N.

N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, and T. Kohno, Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications (Wiley, 2010).

Gabriel, C.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heckert, A.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Heil, T.

T. Heil, A. Uchida, P. Davis, and T. Aida, Phys. Rev. A 68, 033811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanter, I.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohno, T.

N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, and T. Kohno, Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications (Wiley, 2010).

Kurashige, T.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, S.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Leuchs, G.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Li, X.

Marquardt, C.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mauerer, W.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

Naito, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nechvatal, J.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Oowada, I.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pikasis, E.

Reidler, I.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbluh, M.

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

Rukhin, A.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Schneier, B.

N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, and T. Kohno, Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications (Wiley, 2010).

Shiki, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smid, M.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Someya, H.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soto, J.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Sych, D.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

Uchida, A.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Heil, A. Uchida, P. Davis, and T. Aida, Phys. Rev. A 68, 033811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vangel, M.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Vo, S.

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

Wittman, C.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimori, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

C. Gabriel, C. Wittman, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Anderson, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, Nat. Photon. 4, 711 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, Nat. Photon. 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Heil, A. Uchida, P. Davis, and T. Aida, Phys. Rev. A 68, 033811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Rukhin, J. Soto, J. Nechvatal, M. Smid, E. Barker, S. Leigh, M. Levenson, M. Vangel, D. Banks, A. Heckert, J. Dray, and S. Vo, NIST Special Publication 800-22, revision 1a (NIST, 2010).

N. Ferguson, B. Schneier, and T. Kohno, Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications (Wiley, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic diagram. ATT, variable optical attenuator; ISO, inline optical isolator; LD, temperature- stabilized discrete mode laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power spectra of the laser intensity for (a)  I = 14 mA , T = 52.2 % ; (b)  I = 19 mA , T = 52.2 % ; (c)  I = 19 mA , T = 33.7 % .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AC function of the intensity dynamics (a) up to a time shift of 800 ns and (b) resolved zeroth AC peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Map of AC peak height for varying feedback and current conditions.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Results of Statistical Test Suite NIST SP800-22 for a Set of 1000 Sequences of 1 Mbit Each

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