Abstract

Visually evoked intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) were measured in vivo for the first time to our knowledge from all retina layers of the chicken retina with a combined functional optical coherence tomography and electroretinography (ERG) system. IOS traces were recorded from a small volume in the retina with 3.5μm axial resolution and 7ms time resolution. Comparison of the IOS and ERG traces shows a correlation between the positive and negative IOS measured from different retinal layers and the timing of the a and b waves in the ERG recording.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

2010

2009

2007

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Opt. Lett. 31, 2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2002

J. L. Barbur, N. B. Prescott, R. H. Douglas, J. R. Jarvis, and C. M. Wathes, Vis. Res. 42, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. M. McGoogan and V. M. Cassone, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 277, R1418 (1999).

1997

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amthor, F. R.

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbur, J. L.

J. L. Barbur, N. B. Prescott, R. H. Douglas, J. R. Jarvis, and C. M. Wathes, Vis. Res. 42, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

A. A. Moayed, S. Hariri, E. S. Song, V. Choh, and K. Bizheva, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blonder, G. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassone, V. M.

J. M. McGoogan and V. M. Cassone, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 277, R1418 (1999).

Chance, B.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Choh, V.

Douglas, R. H.

J. L. Barbur, N. B. Prescott, R. H. Douglas, J. R. Jarvis, and C. M. Wathes, Vis. Res. 42, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Fujimoto, J. G.

George, J. S.

Hanazono, G.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hariri, S.

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarvis, J. R.

J. L. Barbur, N. B. Prescott, R. H. Douglas, J. R. Jarvis, and C. M. Wathes, Vis. Res. 42, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keyser, K.

Kleinfeld, D.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolbitsch, C.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPorta, A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. C.

Li, Y. G.

Liu, L.

McGoogan, J. M.

J. M. McGoogan and V. M. Cassone, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 277, R1418 (1999).

Miyake, Y.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moayed, A. A.

Perry, B.

Pflug, R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, S.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prescott, N. B.

J. L. Barbur, N. B. Prescott, R. H. Douglas, J. R. Jarvis, and C. M. Wathes, Vis. Res. 42, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raccuia-Behling, F.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsamer, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinoda, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, E. S.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stepnoski, R. A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strang, C.

Tanifuji, M.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsubota, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsunoda, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wathes, C. M.

J. L. Barbur, N. B. Prescott, R. H. Douglas, J. R. Jarvis, and C. M. Wathes, Vis. Res. 42, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamauchi, A.

Yao, X. C.

Zhang, Q. X.

Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.

J. M. McGoogan and V. M. Cassone, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 277, R1418 (1999).

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 041513 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Neurosci.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, Trends Neurosci. 20, 435(1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vis. Res.

J. L. Barbur, N. B. Prescott, R. H. Douglas, J. R. Jarvis, and C. M. Wathes, Vis. Res. 42, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fOCT system and the integrated multicolor visual stimulator. CL, collimating lens; DC, dispersion compensation unit; DG, diffraction grating; ERG, electroretinography system; F, neutral density filter; FC, fiber coupler; FL, focusing lens; L1–L3, lenses in the eye imaging probe; L4 and L5, lenses in the visual stimulation; LED, light emitting diodes; M, mirror; P, pellicle; PDA, photodiode array; PC, polarization controllers; TS, translation stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Morphological image of the chicken retina. (b) Schematic of the photoreceptor mosaic. The green circle marks the location of the visual stimulus spot and the red solid line marks the region from which fOCT recordings were acquired. (c) Arrangement of the B-scans in the 3D stack of fOCT images. The red arrow marks the onset of the light flash. The colored image shows the en face view of the IOS at the photoreceptor layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Representative ERG trace, acquired simultaneously with (b)–(h) fOCT recordings. The yellow strip marks the onset and duration of the light stimulus flash. Black lines in (b)–(h) represent the dark scan IOS, while red lines show the single flash IOS. IS, inner segment.

Equations (1)

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IOS ( x , z , t ) = I x , z ( t ) t = 0 t = T I x , z ( t ) / T 1.

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