Abstract

We report on an optical fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer made by offset splicing a dual-mode fiber with two single-mode fibers. The extinction ratio can be tuned from less than 1dB to greater than 28dB by rotating the dual-mode fiber along its axial direction. The interferometer is utilized as a pulse shaper to convert a 2.5ps Gaussian pulse to a 5.2ps flat-top pulse.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.
  3. L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Slavik, P. Yongwoo, and J. Azaa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Guo, M. Nix, S. Yam, and S. He, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 876 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Nix and S. Yam, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWN2.
  7. W. Bock and T. Woliński, Opt. Lett. 15, 1434 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Murphy, M. Miller, A. Vengsarkar, and R. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Zhu, L. Yuan, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and C. Guan, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5235 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Bock, T. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, and J. Chen, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3933 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Frazao, C. Jesus, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1277 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Tian, S. Yam, and H. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Tian and S. Yam, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2296 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.
  15. S. J. Garth and C. Pask, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 129 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Cristiani, L. Tartara, G. Banfi, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Lett. 26, 1758 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2011

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

Z. Tian, S. Yam, and H. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, P. Yongwoo, and J. Azaa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2001

1990

S. J. Garth and C. Pask, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Bock and T. Woliński, Opt. Lett. 15, 1434 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murphy, M. Miller, A. Vengsarkar, and R. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K.

G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.

Antonczak, A.

G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.

Azaa, J.

R. Slavik, P. Yongwoo, and J. Azaa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G.

Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazao, C. Jesus, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W.

Bolle, C.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Chen, J.

Claus, R.

K. Murphy, M. Miller, A. Vengsarkar, and R. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, A.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

Degiorgio, V.

Eftimov, T.

Essiambre, R.-J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Frazao, O.

O. Frazao, C. Jesus, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Gallo, K.

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

Garth, S. J.

S. J. Garth and C. Pask, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Guan, C.

Guo, C.

He, S.

Hu, H.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Jesus, C.

O. Frazao, C. Jesus, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, P.

G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.

Lee, K.

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

Lingle, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Liu, Z.

Loock, H.

Z. Tian, S. Yam, and H. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCurdy, A.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Mikulic, P.

Miller, M.

K. Murphy, M. Miller, A. Vengsarkar, and R. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mulvad, H.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K.

K. Murphy, M. Miller, A. Vengsarkar, and R. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nix, M.

C. Guo, M. Nix, S. Yam, and S. He, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nix and S. Yam, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWN2.

Oxenlowe, L.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Palushani, E.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

Pask, C.

S. J. Garth and C. Pask, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, D. W.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Petropoulos, P.

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

Randel, S.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Richardson, D.

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

O. Frazao, C. Jesus, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazao, C. Jesus, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, L.

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik, P. Yongwoo, and J. Azaa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.

Sotor, J.

G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.

Tartara, L.

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian and S. Yam, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. Yam, and H. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A.

K. Murphy, M. Miller, A. Vengsarkar, and R. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1688 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Waz, A.

G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.

Winzer, P. J.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

Wolinski, T.

Yam, S.

C. Guo, M. Nix, S. Yam, and S. He, J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 876 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian and S. Yam, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2296 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. Yam, and H. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nix and S. Yam, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWN2.

Yang, J.

Yongwoo, P.

R. Slavik, P. Yongwoo, and J. Azaa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

Zhu, X.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Sheng, K. Lee, F. Parmigiani, K. Gallo, P. Petropoulos, and D. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 94(2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, P. Yongwoo, and J. Azaa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, C. Jesus, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and P. Roy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1277 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, S. Yam, and H. Loock, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1387 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB10.

E. Palushani, H. Hu, M. Galili, H. Mulvad, R. Slavik, L. Oxenlowe, A. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE, 2010), pp. 203–204.
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, A. Antonczak, J. Sotor, A. Waz, and K. Abramski, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMQ5.

M. Nix and S. Yam, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OWN2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the DMF interferometer utilizing offset splicing, and (b) mode profiles supported in the SMF and the DMF. (I)  LP 01 mode in SMF, (II)  LP 01 mode in the DMF, and (III) and (IV) two degenerated spatial LP 11 modes in the DMF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated result of (a) extinction ratio (in decibels) and (b) insertion loss (in decibels) related to the coupling ratio between the two LP 01 modes in the SMF and the DMF and the angle between the offset directions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of the 1.5 m length DMF interferometer by twisting the DMF along its axial direction for different twists of the DMF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Free spectral range (FSR) of the DMF interferometer relative to the length of the DMF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup of the pulse conversion from Gaussian to flat-top profile through the DMF interferometer. CLK, clock synthesizer; MLL, mode-locked laser; PC, polarization controller; MOD, modulator; PS, pulse shaper; COSA, complex optical spectrum analyzer; PPG, pulse pattern generator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of the pulse from a mode-locked laser (solid curve) and the spectrum after the 1.5 m length DMF interferometer (dashed curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pulse profile recorded by the COSA for the input Gaussian (solid curve) and the output flat-top pulses along the two major polarization directions (dashed curve and dotted curve).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ER = 10 log 10 ( a 1 + ( 1 a 1 ) cos Φ a 1 ( 1 a 1 ) cos Φ ) 2 ,
IL = 10 log 10 ( 1 a 1 + ( 1 a 1 ) cos Φ ) 2 .

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