Abstract

In this Letter, we study the emission properties of an electric dipole emitter coupled to a plasmonic spiral structure. The plasmonic spiral structure functions as an optical antenna, coupling the electric dipole emission into circularly polarized unidirectional emission in the far field. Increasing number of turns of the spiral leads to narrower angular width of the emission pattern in the far field. For a spiral antenna with six turns, antenna directivity of 23.5dB with a directional emission into a narrow angular cone of 4.3° can be achieved. The emitted photons carry spin that is essentially determined by the handedness of the spiral antenna. By reversing the spiral, one can switch the polarization of the emission field between left-hand and right-hand circular polarizations. The spiral antenna may be used as a nanoscale circular polarization source in single molecule sensing, single-photo sources, and integrated photonic circuits.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Novotny and N. V. Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 10, 2075 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

L. Novotny and N. V. Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photon. 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 10, 1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 10, 2075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abeysinghe, D. C.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 10, 2075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

Blanchard, R.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 10, 1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 10, 1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 10, 2075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clemens, B.

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 10, 1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B.

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, L.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edamura, T.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, P.

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 10, 1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, S.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grady, N. K.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photon. 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hulst, N. V.

L. Novotny and N. V. Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1962).

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photon. 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photon. 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahboub, O.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, T.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. L.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 10, 2075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

Park, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 10, 1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pflug, C.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinvurzel, P.

Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stutzman, W. L.

W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design (Wiley, 1998).

Thiele, G. A.

W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design (Wiley, 1998).

Wang, J.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, J.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, K. C.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanishi, M.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 10, 2075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Zou, P. Steinvurzel, T. Yang, and K. B. Crozier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 171107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. Wang, C. Pflug, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, M. Yamanishi, and F. Capasso, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 9, 11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, Nano Lett. 11, 637 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ming, L. Zhao, H. Chen, K. C. Woo, J. Wang, and H. Lin, Nano Lett. 11, 2296 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, J. S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 10, 1229 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 7, 2346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 9, 4320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chen, D. C. Abeysinghe, R. L. Nelson, and Q. Zhan, Nano Lett. 10, 2075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. S. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

L. Novotny and N. V. Hulst, Nat. Photon. 5, 83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, Nat. Photon. 4, 312 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. L. Stutzman and G. A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design (Wiley, 1998).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1962).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the proposed spiral antenna structure. An electric point dipole is located 5 nm above the center of the spiral surface. The red arrow indicates the oscillation direction of the electric dipole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular radiation patterns of the electric dipole in the (a)  x z and (b)  y z planes mediated by a spiral antenna. The number for each circle indicates the far-field intensity value. The proposed setup is shown as the inset. Zoom-in views of the central lobes in (a) and (b) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWHM of angular radiation patterns for different turns in the x z and y z planes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electric field amplitude distribution in the far field. The inset shows the zoom-in of the intensity profile superimposed with the polarization map showing the local polarization ellipticity within the mainlobe.

Equations (1)

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r = r 0 Λ 2 π φ ,

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