Abstract

We experimentally verify that a new nanolens of a designed plasmonic aperture can focus visible light to a single line with its width smaller than the limit of half the wavelength in the intermediate zone. The experimental measurement indicates that while the near field plays a role to increase the spot size in the near zone, it is negligible at the beyond-limit focused region; i.e., the focused light is dominated by the radiative fields. The image taken by the optical microscope shows that the fields focused have propagated to the far zone. Besides being of academic interest, the nanolens capable in achieving a lower diffraction limit in the intermediate zone is important for application possibilities.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83(2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaya and H. Higuchi, Science 329, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Chen, Opt. Lett. 35, 3763 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri and A. Gopinath, Nat. Mater. 7, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Mater. 7, 420 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, Nature 452, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu and G. V. Eleftheriades, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013902(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

X. Guo, J. Du, Y. Guo, and J. Yao, Opt. Lett. 31, 2613 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Lin, C. R. Physique 7, 858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry and S. Popescu, J. Phys. A 39, 6965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Truatman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1952 (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cim 9, Suppl. 3, 426 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, P.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry and S. Popescu, J. Phys. A 39, 6965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. K. Truatman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bogy, D. B.

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 2005).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83(2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. R.

Chu, S.

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

di Francia, G. Toraldo

G. Toraldo di Francia, Nuovo Cim 9, Suppl. 3, 426 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Dickinson, M. R.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, J.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

J. Zhu and G. V. Eleftheriades, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013902(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, A.

A. Vaziri and A. Gopinath, Nat. Mater. 7, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83(2010).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Guo, Y.

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method(Artech House, 2005).

Halleck, A. E.

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higuchi, H.

M. Kaya and H. Higuchi, Science 329, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1998).

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaya, M.

M. Kaya and H. Higuchi, Science 329, 686 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029(2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, Nature 399, 134 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, Nature 452, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, D. N.

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerman, G. M.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. J.

B. J. Lin, C. R. Physique 7, 858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liphardt, J.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. T.

H. T. Liu and P. Lalanne, Nature 452, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, Science 297, 820 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L.

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, S.

M. V. Berry and S. Popescu, J. Phys. A 39, 6965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B. M.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Righini, M.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, N. W.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, P. R. H.

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method(Artech House, 2005).

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Truatman, J. K.

E. Betzig and J. K. Truatman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaziri, A.

A. Vaziri and A. Gopinath, Nat. Mater. 7, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 2005).

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yanai, A.

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Zelenina, A. S.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Mater. 7, 420 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu and G. V. Eleftheriades, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 013902(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Physique (1)

B. J. Lin, C. R. Physique 7, 858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Padgett, J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3083 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A (1)

M. V. Berry and S. Popescu, J. Phys. A 39, 6965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

G. M. Lerman, A. Yanai, and U. Levy, Nano Lett. 9, 2139(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and P. Alivisatos, Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 741 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (3)

N. I. Zheludev, Nat. Mater. 7, 420 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri and A. Gopinath, Nat. Mater. 7, 15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Mater. 9, 193 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

W. Srituravanich, L. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Sun, D. B. Bogy, and X. Zhang, Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 733 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83(2010).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 365 (2008).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aperture structure and approach. (a) Schematic of the aperture structure and the paths of the light transmitted, bent, generated, and focused. (b), (c) Scanning electron microscopy images revealing the top (b) and 52 ° tilt cross-sectional (c) views of the aperture (slit length, 4 μm ) using a silver film on fused silica substrate, fabricated by the FIB; the Pt shield is not part of the FAB lens and was added to protect the lens solely for the purpose of making this cross-sectional view. The grooves enhance the focusing ability by slowing down the horizontal expansion of the light [27]. The red dotted lines define the silver film structure (slit width, 80 nm ; groove width and depth, 80 nm ; slit-groove distance, 160 nm ; film thickness, 200 nm ; central film thickness, 120 nm , width, 320 nm ) also used for the simulation with the coordinate shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results from the NSOM and the OM measurements and the simulation. (a)  x z distribution of the NSOM measurement. (b) Profiles of the NSOM measurement (green, upper curve) and the peak focused H z field energy (red, lower curve) from the FDTD simulation. The NSOM profile is from the x z distribution averaged over z, and its peak is normalized to that of the simulation. (c) Picture taken by the OM measurement; the image size shown is 100 × 240 pixels taken using a digital camera with the effective image resolutions in 4080 × 3072 (12.5 megapixels).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

r profiles of the fields from the NSOM measurements and the simulation, where r is the y distance from the metal surface. (a) FWHM versus normalized r profiles of the NSOM measurements with probe diameter of 50 nm (dark green, lower circle-dots curve) and 100 nm (light green, upper triangles curve), the snapshot Hz field energy (red, square dots line), the time-averaged Hz field energy (red, long solid curve), the snapshot Ex field energy (blue, diamond-dots line), and the time-averaged Ex field energy (blue, short solid curve). The error bars of the NSOM measurements are smaller than the size of the dots. (b) The r profiles of the NSOM measurements at x = 320 nm (purple, lower squares), at x = 0 nm with the probe diameter of 50 nm (dark green, middle circle-dots) and 100 nm (light green, upper triangles), and the time-averaged Ex field energy (blue solid curve) normalized to the peak of 50 nm NSOM measurement.

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