Abstract

A phase-locked terahertz transient is exploited as an ultrafast phase gate for femtosecond optical pulses. We directly map out the group delay dispersion of a low-power near-infrared pulse by measuring the electro-optically induced polarization rotation as a function of wavelength. Our experiment covers the spectral window from 1.0 to 1.4μm and reaches a temporal precision better than 1fs. A quantitative analysis of the detector response confirms that this streaking technique requires no reconstruction algorithm and is also well suited for the characterization of pulses spanning more than one optical octave.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Mairesse and F. Quere, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Opt. Lett. 33, 2767(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).
  13. A more detailed derivation of the detector response will be presented elsewhere.
  14. Note that the dependence of χ(2) on ωS only leads to a constant time delay independent of ω.
  15. C.-W. Chen, T.-T. Tang, S.-H. Lin, J. Y. Huang, C.-S. Chang, P.-K. Chung, S.-T. Yen, and C.-L. Pan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, A58 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskiib, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Z. Meng, M. D. Thomson, D. Molter, T. Löffler, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, J. Bartschke, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, and H. G. Roskos, Opt. Express 18, 11316 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Shan, A. S. Weling, E. Knoesel, L. Bartels, M. Bonn, A. Nahata, G. A. Reider, and T. F. Heinz, Opt. Lett. 25, 426(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Matlis, G. R. Plateau, J. van Tilborg, and W. P. Leemans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 23 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Meng, M. D. Thomson, D. Molter, T. Löffler, J. Jonuscheit, R. Beigang, J. Bartschke, T. Bauer, M. Nittmann, and H. G. Roskos, Opt. Express 18, 11316 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quere, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997)
[CrossRef]

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskiib, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, L.

Bartschke, J.

Bauer, T.

Baum, P.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Bonn, M.

Bowlan, P.

R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-S.

Chen, C.-W.

Chung, P.-K.

Cilento, F.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Conte, S. Dal

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coslovich, G.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eggert, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, G.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gabolde, P.

R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giannetti, C.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, T.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

Helm, H.

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

Huber, R.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Opt. Lett. 33, 2767(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. Uhd

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

Kimmel, M.

R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knoesel, E.

Kozma, I. Z.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kübler, C.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskiib, L. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskiib, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leemans, W. P.

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Express 17, 1070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, Opt. Lett. 33, 2767(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-H.

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863(2004).
[CrossRef]

Lochbrunner, S.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

Lohss, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quere, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matlis, H.

Meng, F. Z.

Molter, D.

Nahata, A.

Nittmann, M.

Pan, C.-L.

Parmigiani, F.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Plateau, G. R.

Quere, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quere, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

Riedle, E.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rini, M.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

Sala, T.

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scheu, R.

Schmidhammer, U.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sell, A.

Shan, J.

Sun, F. G.

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T.-T.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tübel, S.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Tilborg, J.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskiib, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

Winnewisser, C.

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863(2004).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-T.

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zang, X.-C.

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863(2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

F. Cilento, C. Giannetti, G. Ferrini, S. Dal Conte, T. Sala, G. Coslovich, M. Rini, A. Cavalleri, and F. Parmigiani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 021102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863(2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1784 (1997)
[CrossRef]

C. Winnewisser, P. Uhd Jepsen, M. Schall, V. Schyja, and H. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3069 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, J. T. Yardley, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2524 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

R. Trebino, P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, X. Gu, S. Akturk, and M. Kimmel, Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nat. Photon. 4, 33 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskiib, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quere, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Itatani, F. Quere, G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

A more detailed derivation of the detector response will be presented elsewhere.

Note that the dependence of χ(2) on ωS only leads to a constant time delay independent of ω.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Principle of THz streaking: The temporal profile of a THz streak field is imprinted on the polarization of a laser pulse. Polarization analysis as a function of wavelength provides the spectral group delay of the pulse. (b) Experimental setup: laser system generating NIR femtosecond pulses ( cont . = continuum ) and THz transients, linear delay stage, beam splitter (BS), nonlinear crystal (NC) with applied streak field E S ( t ) , polarizer (P), monochromator, and photodiode (PD).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Intensity spectrum of the NIR test pulse. (b) Field-induced transmission through the polarizer at 1140 nm (black dots) and 1180 nm (gray dots). (c) THz streak image. Circles indicate the temporal position of a zero-crossing of the THz waveform as a function of the NIR wavelength. The profile reflects the instantaneous frequency of the input pulse. Black line: instantaneous frequency after correction for phase mismatch. Dashed lines: cross sections presented in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized amplitude of the phase-matching function P = | ( e i Δ KL 1 ) / ( i Δ KL ) | for a GaSe sensor (thickness: 100 μm ) at a phase-matching angle of θ int = 13 ° (left) and θ int = 3 ° (right). (b) Temporal offset introduced by phase mismatch for a GaSe crystal of a length of 100 μm (black dashed), 50 μm (blue dash-dotted), and 10 μm (red solid line). (c) Temporal offset introduced for a 10 μm -thin GaSe crystal and gate frequencies of 1.5 THz (red dashed line), 12 THz (blue dash-dotted line), and 30 THz (black solid line). The internal phase-matching angles for these frequencies are chosen as 4 ° , 12 ° , and 18 ° , respectively.

Equations (1)

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d φ NIR d ω = τ exp τ PM τ χ ( 2 ) ,

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