Abstract

We demonstrate coherent combining (phase locking) of seven laser beams emerging from an adaptive fiber- collimator array over a 7km atmospheric propagation path using a target-in-the-loop (TIL) setting. Adaptive control of the piston and the tip and tilt wavefront phase at each fiber-collimator subaperture resulted in automatic focusing of the combined beam onto an unresolved retroreflector target (corner cube) with precompensation of quasi-static and atmospheric turbulence-induced phase aberrations. Both phase locking (piston) and tip–tilt control were performed by maximizing the target-return optical power using iterative stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) techniques. The performance of TIL coherent beam combining and atmospheric mitigation was significantly increased by using an SPGD control variation that accounts for the round-trip propagation delay (delayed SPGD).

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Vorontsov and S. L. Lachinova, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1949 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Vorontsov and G. W. Carhart, Invention disclosure ARL No. 12-03 (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2011).
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2009 (3)

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

Aschenbach, K.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Bennaï, B.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beresnev, L. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Beresnev and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bourdon, P.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruesselbach, H.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, C. Jones, and M. Mangir, in 2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), Vol.  1, pp. 746–748.
[CrossRef]

Canat, G.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carhart, G. W.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov and G. W. Carhart, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov and G. W. Carhart, Invention disclosure ARL No. 12-03 (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2011).

Flores, A.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Gallant, D.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Goular, D.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaouën, Y.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jolivet, V.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, C. Jones, and M. Mangir, in 2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), Vol.  1, pp. 746–748.
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. C.

Lachinova, S. L.

Li, X.

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. J.

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lombard, L.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Lucero, A.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Ma, H. T.

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. X.

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mangir, M.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, C. Jones, and M. Mangir, in 2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), Vol.  1, pp. 746–748.
[CrossRef]

Minden, M.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, C. Jones, and M. Mangir, in 2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), Vol.  1, pp. 746–748.
[CrossRef]

Moreau, B.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pourtal, E.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pulford, B.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Robin, C.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Sanchez, A. D.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Shay, T.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Vasseur, O.

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vergien, C.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Vorontsov, M. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Lachinova and M. A. Vorontsov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov and S. L. Lachinova, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov and G. W. Carhart, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2613 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Beresnev and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950R (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov and G. W. Carhart, Invention disclosure ARL No. 12-03 (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2011).

Wang, S.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, D. C. Jones, and M. Mangir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, C. Jones, and M. Mangir, in 2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), Vol.  1, pp. 746–748.
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weyrauch, T.

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. X.

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeringue, C.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

Zhou, P.

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. A. Vorontsov, T. Weyrauch, L. A. Beresnev, G. W. Carhart, L. Liu, and K. Aschenbach, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 269 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Jolivet, P. Bourdon, B. Bennaï, L. Lombard, D. Goular, E. Pourtal, G. Canat, Y. Jaouën, B. Moreau, and O. Vasseur, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 257 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

X. L. Wang, Y. X. Ma, P. Zhou, H. T. Ma, X. Li, X. X. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, Laser Phys. 19, 984 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. A. Beresnev and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

www.scintec.com.

B. Pulford, T. Shay, J. Baker, A. Flores, C. Robin, C. Vergien, C. Zeringue, D. Gallant, A. D. Sanchez, C. Lu, and A. Lucero, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThO5.

H. Bruesselbach, S. Wang, M. Minden, C. Jones, and M. Mangir, in 2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (IEEE, 2005), Vol.  1, pp. 746–748.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov and G. W. Carhart, Invention disclosure ARL No. 12-03 (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2011).

www.eospace.com.

www.optonicus.com.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup used for coherent beam combining over a 7 km atmospheric propagation path. (b) Photo of the fiber-array transmitter with the pointing telescope (right) and the receiver telescope (left).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results from the coherent beam combining experiment: (a) average PIB metric evolution curve, J and (b), (c) averaged irradiance distribution at the target plane with feedback off (b) and piston control on (c).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u j ( n + 1 ) = u j ( n ) + γ δ u j ( n ) [ J + ( n ) J ( n ) ] ,
τ SPGD = 2 ( τ pert + τ resp + τ J + τ delay ) ,
u i ( n + 1 ) = u i ( n ) + γ [ J + ( n ) J ( n ) ] δ u i ( n Δ n ) , ( i = 1 , , 7 ) .

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