Abstract

The third harmonic generated during femtosecond filamentation in air is studied. By establishing a gradient from atmospheric pressure to vacuum conditions, we truncate the filament abruptly at defined positions. The introduction of the pressure gradient leads to an enhancement of the generated third harmonic radiation by 3 orders of magnitude. This effect is attributed to an improved on-axis phase-matching condition. We investigate the spectral shape and the conversion efficiency of the third harmonic during the propagation in the filament.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, Opt. Lett. 27, 1944 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Suntsov, D. Abdollahpour, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, Opt. Express 17, 3190 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Zhang, X. Lu, Y. Zhang, M. Zhou, T. Xi, Z. Wang, and J. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 35, 974 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).
  13. H. Suchowski, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063821 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Suchowski, V. Prabhudesai, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Express 17, 12731 (2009).
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2011 (3)

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

H. Suchowski, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abdollahpour, D.

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

André, Y.-B.

Arie, A.

Augé, F.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beaudin, G.

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binhammer, T.

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Durand, M.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Encrenaz, P.

Forestier, B.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Gaarde, M. B.

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gheudin, M.

Goulielmakis, E.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gravel, J.-F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalpouzos, C.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kovacev, M.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).

Kretschmar, M.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Méchain, G.

Morgner, U.

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).

Munier, J.-M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, Opt. Lett. 27, 1944 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nersisyan, G.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oron, D.

Papadogiannis, N.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Papazoglou, D. G.

Patalano, G.

Prabhudesai, V.

Prade, B.

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, E.

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).

Silberberg, Y.

Steingrube, D. S.

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, Opt. Express 19, 19495 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).

Suchowski, H.

Suntsov, S.

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Vockerodt, T.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).

Wang, Z.

Weihe, F.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xi, T.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, M.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. Chin, and C. Bowden, Appl. Phys. B 77, 177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, Appl. Phys. B 73, 687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, New J. Phys. 13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, Opt. Commun. 245, 399 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Suchowski, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament” (submitted to Appl. Phys. B).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup (see text for details). (a) A filament is created in a gas cell of air at 1 atm and truncated at a certain position with subsequent propagation in vacuum. (b) Setup for the measurement of the TH spectrum along the propagation in the filament. (c) Setup for beam profile analysis of the TH.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam profiles of TH radiation. (a) TH generated in an undisturbed filament. (b) TH radiation generated with gradient imposed by a metal plate pinhole placed 252 cm after the focusing mirror. (c) Cross sections of the beam profiles from the undisturbed filament in (a) and from the filament with gradient in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrum of TH along the propagation in the filament and (b) calculated Fourier limit. (c) Conversion efficiency for a filament disturbed by a metal pinhole with (solid line) and without pressure gradient (dashed line).

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