Abstract

A synergistic effect between UV down-conversion and IR up-conversion is witnessed in YbF3:Er3+ phosphors by employing the dual wavelength (369nm and 980nm) excitation source. The synergistic effect originates from an abnormal energy transfer between Er3+ ions, in which the Er3+ ions in metastable states excited by 369nm photons are excited again by the 980nm IR photons. The dual wavelength excited red emission intensity is 1.1 times the total red emission intensities from 369nm and 980nm single excitation. The synergistic effect refers us to a way to convert both high-energy and low-energy photons into one middle-energy photon with high quantum yield.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, and R. E. I. Schropp, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).

J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, X. Xu, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 21663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. Kawano, B. C. Hong, K. Sakamoto, T. Tsuboi, and H. J. Seo, Opt. Mater. 31, 1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 11081 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. Wang, Y. Bu, S. Xiao, X. Yang, and J. W. Ding, Appl. Phys. B 93, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, P. Huang, and F. Y. Weng, Opt. Lett. 33, 1884 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. S. Richards and A. Shalav, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2679 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J. C. Guillaume, and K. Zahraman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Nakata, N. Hashimoto, and K. Kawano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aarts, L.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 11081 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auzel, F.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J. C. Guillaume, and K. Zahraman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biner, D.

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bu, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Bu, S. Xiao, X. Yang, and J. W. Ding, Appl. Phys. B 93, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. Q.

Chen, R.

Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Wild, J.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, and R. E. I. Schropp, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

den Hertog, M. I.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. W.

X. Wang, Y. Bu, S. Xiao, X. Yang, and J. W. Ding, Appl. Phys. B 93, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eilers, J. J.

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, F. E.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Gibart, P.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J. C. Guillaume, and K. Zahraman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H. U.

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guillaume, J. C.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J. C. Guillaume, and K. Zahraman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, N.

R. Nakata, N. Hashimoto, and K. Kawano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. C.

K. Kawano, B. C. Hong, K. Sakamoto, T. Tsuboi, and H. J. Seo, Opt. Mater. 31, 1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P.

Huang, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jia, W. Y.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Ju, J. J.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano, B. C. Hong, K. Sakamoto, T. Tsuboi, and H. J. Seo, Opt. Mater. 31, 1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Nakata, N. Hashimoto, and K. Kawano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kox, M. H. F.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, K.

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. S.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Liu, H. M.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Liu, X.

J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, X. Xu, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 21663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).

Lumin, J.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Luo, Z.

Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Meijerink, A.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, and R. E. I. Schropp, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 11081 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, R.

R. Nakata, N. Hashimoto, and K. Kawano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).

J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, X. Xu, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 21663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rath, J. K.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, and R. E. I. Schropp, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

B. S. Richards and A. Shalav, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2679 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, K.

K. Kawano, B. C. Hong, K. Sakamoto, T. Tsuboi, and H. J. Seo, Opt. Mater. 31, 1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, and R. E. I. Schropp, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. J.

K. Kawano, B. C. Hong, K. Sakamoto, T. Tsuboi, and H. J. Seo, Opt. Mater. 31, 1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shalav, A.

B. S. Richards and A. Shalav, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2679 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teng, Y.

J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, X. Xu, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 21663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).

Tsuboi, T.

K. Kawano, B. C. Hong, K. Sakamoto, T. Tsuboi, and H. J. Seo, Opt. Mater. 31, 1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van der Eerden, J. P. J. M.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Ende, B. M.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 11081 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, and R. E. I. Schropp, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Wijngaarden, J. T.

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vergeer, P.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vlugt, T. J. H.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Bu, S. Xiao, X. Yang, and J. W. Ding, Appl. Phys. B 93, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. S.

Wang, Y. Y.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Weng, F. Y.

Xiao, S.

X. Wang, Y. Bu, S. Xiao, X. Yang, and J. W. Ding, Appl. Phys. B 93, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Bu, S. Xiao, X. Yang, and J. W. Ding, Appl. Phys. B 93, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).

J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, X. Xu, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 21663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, W. M.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Yu, Y. L.

Yun, S. I.

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

Zahraman, K.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J. C. Guillaume, and K. Zahraman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).

J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, X. Xu, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 21663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

X. Wang, Y. Bu, S. Xiao, X. Yang, and J. W. Ding, Appl. Phys. B 93, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

B. S. Richards and A. Shalav, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 2679 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

P. Gibart, F. Auzel, J. C. Guillaume, and K. Zahraman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4401 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Nakata, N. Hashimoto, and K. Kawano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L90 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, X. Liu, S. Ye, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 9672 (2010).

J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, X. Xu, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 18, 21663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

Y. Chen, Y. Huang, M. Huang, R. Chen, and Z. Luo, Opt. Mater. 25, 271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawano, B. C. Hong, K. Sakamoto, T. Tsuboi, and H. J. Seo, Opt. Mater. 31, 1353 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 11081 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 71, 014119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

J. de Wild, J. K. Rath, A. Meijerink, W. G. J. H. M. van Sark, and R. E. I. Schropp, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2395 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Y. Jia, K. S. Lim, H. M. Liu, Y. Y. Wang, J. J. Ju, S. I. Yun, F. E. Fernandez, W. M. Yen, and J. Lumin, 66&67, 190 (1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visible photoluminescence spectra of YbF 3 : 11 % Er 3 + under 369 nm excitation (dotted line) with the excitation power P 369 = 0.80 mW , under 980 nm excitation (short dashed line) with the excitation power P 980 = 196 mW , under 369 nm and 980 nm dual excitation (solid line) with the excitation powers P 369 = 0.80 mW and P 980 = 196 mW . The inset shows UV and IR photoluminescence excitation spectra ( λ em = 656 nm ) of YbF 3 : 11 % Er 3 + .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absolute enhancement (η) and relative enhancement of red emission (Φ) with increasing 980 nm laser power under 369 nm and 980 nm dual excitation. The inset shows dependence of green and red emission intensity on Er 3 + concentration under 369 nm and 980 nm dual excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decay curves corresponding to the Er 3 + : F 9 / 2 4 I 15 / 2 4 transition in the YbF 3 :3 % Er 3 + under 369 nm excitation (dotted line), under 980 nm excitation (dashed line), and under 369 nm and 980 nm dual excitation (solid line). Inset, rising time and τ eff as functions of excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Synergistic effect of UV down-conversion and IR up-conversion in Er 3 + -doped YbF 3 phosphors photo excited with both 369 nm UV and 980 nm IR photons.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = I 3 ( I 1 + I 2 ) I 1 + I 2 ,
Φ = I 3 ( I 1 + I 2 ) I 3 ,
τ eff = I ( t ) t d t I ( t ) d t ,
η = τ m / τ r ,

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