Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for measuring liquid phase diffusion based on tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG). By monitoring the transmission spectra of the TFBG placed at different positions of the diffusion zone and calculating the normalized area enclosed by the upper and lower envelope curves of the cladding modes, the distribution curves of the glycerol concentration are obtained, according to the experimental calibration formulas between the glycerol concentration and the normalized area. This method can conveniently achieve remote and distributed measurement of the liquid phase diffusion in hostile environment because of its all-fiber structure.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Y. Jeong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, S. Tian, and Q. D. Zhao, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

X. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 296 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Ternström, A. Sjöstrand, G. Aly, and Å. Jernqvist, J. Chem. Eng. Data 41, 876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aly, G.

G. Ternström, A. Sjöstrand, G. Aly, and Å. Jernqvist, J. Chem. Eng. Data 41, 876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, W.

Bucholtz, F.

Capiglia, C.

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coriell, S. R.

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

DeWitt, R.

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dewynter, V.

Dussardier, B.

Duval, W. M. B.

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Ferdinand, P.

Glicksman, M. E.

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ishaq, I. M.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. Y.

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Y. Jeong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jernqvist, Å.

G. Ternström, A. Sjöstrand, G. Aly, and Å. Jernqvist, J. Chem. Eng. Data 41, 876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Kataoka, H.

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Kodama, T.

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Labonté, L.

Laffont, G.

Lee, S. M.

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Y. Jeong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, S. Tian, and Q. D. Zhao, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Y. P.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, S. Tian, and Q. D. Zhao, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mustarelli, P.

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

Patrick, H. J.

Phan Huy, M. C.

Quartarone, E.

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quintela, A.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

Saini, S. S.

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Y. Jeong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, G. J.

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N. B.

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Sjöstrand, A.

G. Ternström, A. Sjöstrand, G. Aly, and Å. Jernqvist, J. Chem. Eng. Data 41, 876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ternström, G.

G. Ternström, A. Sjöstrand, G. Aly, and Å. Jernqvist, J. Chem. Eng. Data 41, 876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tian, S.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, S. Tian, and Q. D. Zhao, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. F.

Zhang, L.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. L.

Zhao, Q. D.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, S. Tian, and Q. D. Zhao, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

X. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Y. Jeong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1431 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. Zhou, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 864 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Eng. Data

G. Ternström, A. Sjöstrand, G. Aly, and Å. Jernqvist, J. Chem. Eng. Data 41, 876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

N. B. Singh, M. E. Glicksman, S. R. Coriell, W. M. B. Duval, G. J. Santoro, and R. DeWitt, J. Cryst. Growth 167, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, S. Tian, and Q. D. Zhao, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51, 479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sens. Actuators B

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, Sens. Actuators B 107, 738 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ionics

C. Capiglia, Y. Saito, H. Kataoka, T. Kodama, E. Quartarone, and P. Mustarelli, Solid State Ionics 131, 291 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of a 4 ° TFBG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for liquid phase diffusion measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of the TFBG in different times when it is placed at a distance of 1 mm below the initial water-glycerol interface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectra of the TFBG and (b) the resonant wavelengths of different modes with the diffusion time when the TFBG is placed at a distance of 1 mm below the initial interface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relations between diffusion time and the normalized areas enclosed by the upper and lower envelope curves of the cladding modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized areas enclosed by the upper and lower envelope curves of the TFBG cladding modes in different concentrations of the glycerol solution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relations between the glycerol con centration and the diffusion time when the TFBG is placed at different positions.

Equations (4)

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λ Bragg = 2 n eff , core Λ g / cos θ ,
λ clad i = [ n eff , core + n eff , clad i ] Λ g / cos θ ,
A = λ min λ max [ ξ up ( λ ) ξ low ( λ ) ] d λ λ min λ max [ ξ up R ( λ ) ξ low R ( λ ) ] d λ ,
C 89.75 % , C = 4.01233 A 2 + 0.60476 A + 0.89745 , C < 89.75 % , C = 0.15173 A 2 0.09044 A + 0.89745.

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