Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an integrated optical isolator in InP using two phase modulators in series. The phase modulators are driven with a single-frequency signal in quadrature. Theoretically there is no effect on the forward signal, and the carrier of the backward signal can be eliminated, the energy distributed to other frequencies. We achieve a carrier isolation of 11dB and an excess insertion loss of 2.3dB. Such an isolator can be monolithically integrated with a laser without extra materials or magnetic fields.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. L. Koch, F. Koyama, and K.-Y. Liou, “Optical modulators as monolithically integrated optical isolators,” U. S. patent 5,663,824 (1997).
  5. S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photon.91 (2009).
  7. L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Doerr, C. Joyner, and J. Gripp, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1374 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

2011 (1)

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Doerr, C. Joyner, and J. Gripp, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Ayache, M.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Cadieu, F.

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Chen, Y.-F.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doerr, C.

C. Doerr, C. Joyner, and J. Gripp, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Dong, P.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Dupuis, N.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Fainman, Y.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photon.91 (2009).

Feng, L.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, C.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fratello, V.

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gripp, J.

C. Doerr, C. Joyner, and J. Gripp, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, H.

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joyner, C.

C. Doerr, C. Joyner, and J. Gripp, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

T. L. Koch, F. Koyama, and K.-Y. Liou, “Optical modulators as monolithically integrated optical isolators,” U. S. patent 5,663,824 (1997).

Koyama, F.

T. L. Koch, F. Koyama, and K.-Y. Liou, “Optical modulators as monolithically integrated optical isolators,” U. S. patent 5,663,824 (1997).

Levy, M.

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K.-Y.

T. L. Koch, F. Koyama, and K.-Y. Liou, “Optical modulators as monolithically integrated optical isolators,” U. S. patent 5,663,824 (1997).

Lu, M.-H.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinelli, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melloni, A.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morichetti, F.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, Y.

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noe, R.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, J. R. M.

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, N. J.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Scherer, A.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torregiani, M.

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wust, F.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.-L.

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photon.91 (2009).

Zhang, H.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, and R. Noe, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Levy, J. R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. Fratello, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Doerr, C. Joyner, and J. Gripp, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Morichetti, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Torregiani, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 033902(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. Feng, M. Ayache, J. Huang, Y.-L. Xu, M.-H. Lu, Y.-F. Chen, Y. Fainman, and A. Scherer, Science 333, 729 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, and D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

T. L. Koch, F. Koyama, and K.-Y. Liou, “Optical modulators as monolithically integrated optical isolators,” U. S. patent 5,663,824 (1997).

Z. Yu and S. Fan, Nat. Photon.91 (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of isolator. PM = phase modulator .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated response of the proposed isolator to a cw input. f = 10 GHz , A = 1.2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated achievable isolation at the carrier for various residual amplitude modulation and nonlinear response values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Layout (stretched vertically for clarity) and (b) photograph of the isolator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured response of the isolator. Modulator length is 800 μm .

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ L = v g 4 f ,
e j A cos ( 2 π f t ) e j A sin [ 2 π f ( t Δ T ) ] ,
e j A sin ( 2 π f t ) e A cos [ 2 π f ( t Δ T ) ] ,
e j 2 A sin ( 2 π f t ) .
J 0 ( 2 A ) = 0 ,
ϕ = A [ 1 + cos ( 2 π f t ) ] γ .

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