Abstract

We address for the first time the measurement of nonradiative decay rates in Cr-related centers in nanodiamonds. Compared to our previous quantum efficiency measurement of Cr centers created in bulk diamond, separate measurements of radiative and nonradiative decay rates in grown nanodiamonds prove more challenging due to size dependence effects. We demonstrate in this Letter that, using defocused dipole imaging and collection efficiency calculation via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), a quantum efficiency up to 0.9 can be inferred to Cr-related centers showing a 2-level system photon statistics.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Butchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Brookmann, L. Coolen, M. Dahan and J. P. Hermier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Butchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Brookmann, L. Coolen, M. Dahan and J. P. Hermier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004)
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Hmoud, M.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balasubramanian, G.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benstedt, A. D.

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Bratschitsch, R.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brookmann, X.

X. Brookmann, L. Coolen, M. Dahan and J. P. Hermier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Butchler, B.

B. Butchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, I. Y.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. W.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Coolen, L.

X. Brookmann, L. Coolen, M. Dahan and J. P. Hermier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Dahan, M.

X. Brookmann, L. Coolen, M. Dahan and J. P. Hermier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Eggeling, C.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Eghlidi, H.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Fleury, L.

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, S.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Greentree, A. D.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greentree, A. G.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, A.

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Han, K. Y.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Hanke, T.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P. R.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermier, J. P.

X. Brookmann, L. Coolen, M. Dahan and J. P. Hermier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hettich, C.

B. Butchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Irvine, S. E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Jelezko, F.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, B. C.

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, Brett C.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

Kalkbrenner, T.

B. Butchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolesov, R.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krueger, A.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kukura, P.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lettow, R.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

McCallum, J.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCallum, J. C.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

Prawer, S.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renn, A.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

B. Butchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Shin, C.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, D. A.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stacey, A.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, C. H.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tietz, C.

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Tisler, J.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Borczyskowski, C.

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, A.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrachtrup, J.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, A. Stacey, J. McCallum, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Nano Lett. 9, 3191 (2009)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (2)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Photon. 3, 144 (2009)
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, X. W. Chen, H. Eghlidi, P. Kukura, R. Lettow, A. Renn, V. Sandoghdar, and S. Götzinger, Nat. Photon. 5, 166 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, Nature 455, 648 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, Brett C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, D. A. Simpson, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. B 81, 121201R (2010)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Castelletto, I. Aharonovich, B. C. Gibson, B. C. Johnson, S. Prawer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 217403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Butchler, T. Kalkbrenner, C. Hettich, and V. Sandoghdar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063003 (2005)
[CrossRef]

X. Brookmann, L. Coolen, M. Dahan and J. P. Hermier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107403 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C. H. Su, A. G. Greentree, S. Prawer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 076501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Gruber, A. D. Benstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, Science 276, 2012 (1997)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the confocal microscope: Obj 100 × 0.95 NA objective, D i dichroic mirror, F bandpass filters (10 and 40 nm ), APD 1 , 2 single photon modules, BS beam splitter, FM flipping mirrors, laser 1 and 2 CW and pulsed Ti:sapphs, cooled CCD, spectrum analyzer, photon counting system. The orientation of a generic dipole relative to the optic axis (z) and the sample surface is identified by the polar Θ and azimuthal Φ angles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Defocused dipole imaging of some of the centers studied: on the left the calculated image using FDTD ( NA = 0.95 and defocusing of 1.32 μm ) and on the right the measured image. Θ and Φ angles are determined. The scale is 4 × 4 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Saturation curves of the emitters versus optical power, fitted using Origin software yielding a χ ν 2 = 4 ÷ 30 and r 2 = 0.999 . In some cases the emitters do not reach complete saturation thus reducing the accuracy of the fitting, however, higher power could not be used due to the increased background attributed to high scattering; (b) calculated collection efficiency for the measured dipoles (red triangles on the right axis). The saturation count rates are shown on the left axis (black squares). (c) Total excited state lifetime measurements (left axis, black squares) and quantum efficiency (right axis, red triangles), deduced from the collection efficiency in (b). Stars indicate 2-level system emitters. (d) FDTD calculation of the Purcell factor (right axis)for a Cr center, plotted versus the ND radius (solid red line for a dipole parallel to the substrate plane). On the left axis collection efficiency calculated via FDTD versus the ND radius, black straight curve and dashed blue line for a dipole parallel and orthogonal to the surface, respectively.

Metrics