Abstract

We report on a microscopic Fabry–Perot interferometer whose cavity is a bubble trapped inside an optical fiber. The microcavity is formed by pressuring a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with large voids during fusion splicing with a conventional single-mode fiber. The technique allows achieving high repeatability and full control over the cavity size and shape. It was found that the size of the PCF voids contributes to control the cavity size independently of the pressure in the PCF. Our devices exhibit a record fringe contrast of 30dB (visibility of 0.999) due to the ellipsoidal cavity whose surfaces compensate for the diffraction of the reflected beam. The strain sensitivity of the interferometers is higher when the cavities are ellipsoidal than when they are spherical.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
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J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, G. Coviello, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Lett. 34, 2441 (2009).
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E. Li, G. D. Peng, and X. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101117 (2008).
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T. Wei, Y. Han, H.-L. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 33, 536 (2008).
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Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
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V. R. Machavaram, R. A. Badcock, and G. F. Fernando, Sens. Actuators A 138, 248 (2007).
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Baptista, J. M.

O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

Birks, T.

Brennan, D. D.

Chen, G.

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Chen, X.

Cibula, E.

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E. Li, G. D. Peng, and X. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101117 (2008).
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Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Donlagic, D.

Farahi, F.

O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gerges, T. P. Newson, F. Farahi, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 68, 157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fernando, G. F.

V. R. Machavaram, R. A. Badcock, and G. F. Fernando, Sens. Actuators A 138, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

Frazao, O.

O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

Fu, H. Y.

Gerges, A. S.

A. S. Gerges, T. P. Newson, F. Farahi, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 68, 157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J.

Guan, B.-O.

Han, M.

Han, Y.

Hu, J. J.

Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Jackson, D. A.

A. S. Gerges, T. P. Newson, F. Farahi, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 68, 157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, W. Jin, and D. Wang, Opt. Express 19, 12418 (2011).
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Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Jones, J. D. C.

A. S. Gerges, T. P. Newson, F. Farahi, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 68, 157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

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[CrossRef]

Lally, E.

Lan, X.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S.

Li, E.

E. Li, G. D. Peng, and X. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, X.

Liu, Z.

Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lv, F.

Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Machavaram, V. R.

V. R. Machavaram, R. A. Badcock, and G. F. Fernando, Sens. Actuators A 138, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

A. S. Gerges, T. P. Newson, F. Farahi, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 68, 157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

E. Li, G. D. Peng, and X. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Putman, M. A.

Qureshi, K. K.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, F.

Shi, Q.

Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J. S.

Tam, H. Y.

Tsai, H.-L.

Villatoro, J.

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, A.

Wang, D.

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, F. Shen, Z. Wang, Z. Huang, and A. Wang, Appl. Opt. 45, 7760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Y. Han, H.-L. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 33, 536 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witkowska, A.

Wu, C.

Xiao, H.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Y. Han, H.-L. Tsai, and H. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 33, 536 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Li, G. D. Peng, and X. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, T. Wei, X. Lan, Y. Huang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, IEEE Photon. J. 2, 469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Q. Shi, F. Lv, Z. Wang, L. Jin, J. J. Hu, Z. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazao, S. H. Aref, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, J. Kobelke, and K. Schuster, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. S. Gerges, T. P. Newson, F. Farahi, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, Opt. Commun. 68, 157 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators A

V. R. Machavaram, R. A. Badcock, and G. F. Fernando, Sens. Actuators A 138, 248 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Drawing of the fabrication and characterization setup. LED stands for light emitting device, FOC for fiber optic circulator, and OSA for optical spectrum analyzer. The cross sections of the PCFs used are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micrographs of some cavities. (a) The PCF is not pressurized, (b) and (c) the pressure was 1.5   bars and 1.0 bar , respectively. d refers to cavity length. The fiber used was the PCF-B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interference patterns observed when the PCF void is not pressurized (spherical cavity, d = 27 μm ) or pressurized (elliptical cavity) at 1.5   bars ( d = 28 μm ) or at 4.0 bars ( d = 58 μm ). In all cases the fiber was the PCF-B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Period of the FPIs as a function of the pressure in the voids of the PCF. The inset shows the cavity length as a function of pressure. The fibers used are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Shifts of the interference patterns as a function of strain in FPIs with ellipsoidal cavities of different sizes. For comparison, the response of a FPI with a spherical cavity is shown.

Equations (1)

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V = 2 k / ( 1 + k ) ,

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