Abstract

Experiments were performed to explore the use of two-photon planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of krypton gas for applications of scalar imaging in supersonic flows. Experiments were performed in an underexpanded jet of krypton, which exhibited a wide range of conditions, from subsonic to hypersonic. Excellent signal-to-noise ratios were obtained, showing the technique is suitable for single-shot imaging. The data were used to infer the distribution of gas density and temperature by correcting the fluorescence signal for quenching effects and using isentropic relations. The centerline variation of the density and temperature from the experiments agree very well with those predicted with an empirical correlation and a CFD simulation (FLUENT). Overall, the high signal levels and quantifiable measurements indicate that Kr-PLIF could be an effective scalar marker for use in supersonic and hypersonic flow applications.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

J. Yoo, D. Mitchell, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 49, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, AIAA J. 47, 803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Naik, W. D. Kulatilaka, K. K. Venkatesan, and R. Lucht, AIAA J. 47, 839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. P. Kuehner and J. C. Dutton, AIAA J. 43, 1767 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 30, 93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Auvity, M. R. Etz, and A. J. Smits, Phys. Fluids 13, 3025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1995 (3)

J. L. Palmer and R. K. Hanson, Shock Waves 4, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, J. Fluid Mech. 284, 171(1995).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Whitehead, B. Cannon, and J. Wacker, Appl. Opt. 34, 3250 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, Exp. Fluids 22, 175 (1991).

1989 (2)

D. G. Fletcher and J. C. McDaniel, AIAA J. 27, 575 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6969 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

S. Cheng, M. Zimmermann, and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

S. Grist, P. M. Sherman, and D. R. Glass, AIAA J. 4, 68(1966).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

T. C. Adamson and J. A. Nicholls, J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 26, 18 (1959).

Adamson, T. C.

T. C. Adamson and J. A. Nicholls, J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 26, 18 (1959).

Alderfer, D. W.

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, AIAA J. 47, 803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. C.

J. C. Anderson, Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

Auvity, B.

B. Auvity, M. R. Etz, and A. J. Smits, Phys. Fluids 13, 3025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balla, R. J.

J. L. Mills, C. I. Sukenik, and R. J. Balla, "Hypersonic wake diagnostics Using laser induced fluorescence techniques," presented at 42nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 27–30, 2011.

Buck, G. M.

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, AIAA J. 47, 803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B.

Chang, A. Y.

Cheng, S.

S. Cheng, M. Zimmermann, and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, N. T.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, J. Fluid Mech. 284, 171(1995).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, Exp. Fluids 22, 175 (1991).

Danehy, P. M.

Davidson, D. F.

J. Yoo, D. Mitchell, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 49, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DiRosa, M. D.

Dutton, J. C.

Etz, M. R.

B. Auvity, M. R. Etz, and A. J. Smits, Phys. Fluids 13, 3025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, D. G.

D. G. Fletcher and J. C. McDaniel, AIAA J. 27, 575 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glass, D. R.

S. Grist, P. M. Sherman, and D. R. Glass, AIAA J. 4, 68(1966).
[CrossRef]

Grist, S.

S. Grist, P. M. Sherman, and D. R. Glass, AIAA J. 4, 68(1966).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R.

Hanson, R. K.

J. Yoo, D. Mitchell, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 49, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 30, 93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Palmer and R. K. Hanson, Shock Waves 4, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. DiRosa, A. Y. Chang, and R. K. Hanson, Appl. Opt. 32, 4074 (1993).

Hargus, W. A.

W. A. Hargus, "A preliminary study of krypton laser-induced fluorescence," presented at 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Nashville, Tenn., July 25–28, 2010.

Hiller, B.

Hsu, A. G.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inman, J. A.

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, AIAA J. 47, 803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, C. B.

Jiang, N.

Kuehner, J. P.

J. P. Kuehner and J. C. Dutton, AIAA J. 43, 1767 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulatilaka, W. D.

S. V. Naik, W. D. Kulatilaka, K. K. Venkatesan, and R. Lucht, AIAA J. 47, 839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

Lucht, R.

S. V. Naik, W. D. Kulatilaka, K. K. Venkatesan, and R. Lucht, AIAA J. 47, 839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

McCrea, A.

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, AIAA J. 47, 803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, J. C.

D. G. Fletcher and J. C. McDaniel, AIAA J. 27, 575 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

Miles, R. B.

S. Cheng, M. Zimmermann, and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. C.

J. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6969 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. D.

Mills, J. L.

J. L. Mills, C. I. Sukenik, and R. J. Balla, "Hypersonic wake diagnostics Using laser induced fluorescence techniques," presented at 42nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 27–30, 2011.

Mitchell, D.

J. Yoo, D. Mitchell, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 49, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mungal, M. G.

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, J. Fluid Mech. 284, 171(1995).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, Exp. Fluids 22, 175 (1991).

Naik, S. V.

S. V. Naik, W. D. Kulatilaka, K. K. Venkatesan, and R. Lucht, AIAA J. 47, 839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narayanaswamy, V.

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, J. A.

T. C. Adamson and J. A. Nicholls, J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 26, 18 (1959).

Palmer, J. L.

J. L. Palmer and R. K. Hanson, Shock Waves 4, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, P. M.

S. Grist, P. M. Sherman, and D. R. Glass, AIAA J. 4, 68(1966).
[CrossRef]

Smits, A. J.

B. Auvity, M. R. Etz, and A. J. Smits, Phys. Fluids 13, 3025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sukenik, C. I.

J. L. Mills, C. I. Sukenik, and R. J. Balla, "Hypersonic wake diagnostics Using laser induced fluorescence techniques," presented at 42nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 27–30, 2011.

Thurber, M. C.

M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 30, 93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, K. K.

S. V. Naik, W. D. Kulatilaka, K. K. Venkatesan, and R. Lucht, AIAA J. 47, 839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wacker, J.

Webster, M.

Whitehead, C. A.

Woodmansee, M. A.

Yoo, J.

J. Yoo, D. Mitchell, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 49, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, M.

S. Cheng, M. Zimmermann, and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (5)

J. A. Inman, P. M. Danehy, D. W. Alderfer, G. M. Buck, and A. McCrea, AIAA J. 47, 803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Naik, W. D. Kulatilaka, K. K. Venkatesan, and R. Lucht, AIAA J. 47, 839 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fletcher and J. C. McDaniel, AIAA J. 27, 575 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Kuehner and J. C. Dutton, AIAA J. 43, 1767 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Grist, P. M. Sherman, and D. R. Glass, AIAA J. 4, 68(1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Cheng, M. Zimmermann, and R. B. Miles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 143 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (3)

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, Exp. Fluids 22, 175 (1991).

M. C. Thurber and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 30, 93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoo, D. Mitchell, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, Exp. Fluids 49, 751 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

N. T. Clemens and M. G. Mungal, J. Fluid Mech. 284, 171(1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. (1)

T. C. Adamson and J. A. Nicholls, J. Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. 26, 18 (1959).

Phys. Fluids (1)

B. Auvity, M. R. Etz, and A. J. Smits, Phys. Fluids 13, 3025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. C. Miller, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6969 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

A. G. Hsu, V. Narayanaswamy, N. T. Clemens, and J. H. Frank, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 759 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shock Waves (1)

J. L. Palmer and R. K. Hanson, Shock Waves 4, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. C. Anderson, Modern Compressible Flow: With Historical Perspective, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

J. L. Mills, C. I. Sukenik, and R. J. Balla, "Hypersonic wake diagnostics Using laser induced fluorescence techniques," presented at 42nd AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 27–30, 2011.

W. A. Hargus, "A preliminary study of krypton laser-induced fluorescence," presented at 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Nashville, Tenn., July 25–28, 2010.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustrating the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of sheet correction procedure: (a) raw single-shot Kr-PLIF image, (b) corresponding sheet-corrected image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the centerline profiles obtained from the present experiment, an empirical fit [20] and FLUENT simulations: (a) mean density and (b) mean temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the mean, normalized, sheet-corrected Kr-PLIF signal (left), and the simulated PLIF signal (right).

Equations (1)

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S = C A 21 A 21 + σ 0 n v n ,

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