Abstract

A lateral cavity photonic crystal (PhC) surface-emitting laser is realized on a commercial epitaxial waveguide wafer without a distributed Bragg reflector first. Energy is coupled from the lateral resonance to surface-emitting light through the Γ band edge of the PhC with a square lattice. Electrically driven 1553.8nm surface-emitting lasing action is observed at room temperature. The threshold current density of 667A/cm2 is ultralow for the surface-emitting laser.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Nat. Photon. 1, 119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, X. Letartre, J. L. Leclercq, P. Regreny, and P. Viktorovitch, Opt. Express 15, 12443(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 386 (2004).

2002 (1)

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, and M. Mochizuki, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Z. I. Alferov, Semiconductors 32, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alferov, Z. I.

Z. I. Alferov, Semiconductors 32, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benbakir, B.

Boutami, S.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Nat. Photon. 1, 119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. H.

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, and M. Mochizuki, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. C. Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Nat. Photon. 1, 119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, and M. Mochizuki, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitahara, C.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, J. L.

Letartre, X.

Liu, A. J.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C. L.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, M.

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, and M. Mochizuki, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murata, M.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 386 (2004).

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, and M. Mochizuki, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qu, H. W.

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Regreny, P.

Ren, G.

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, G.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soda, H.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, T.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. F.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xing, M. X.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, M.

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 386 (2004).

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. J.

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, W. H.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. J.

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Nat. Photon. 1, 119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, H. W. Qu, W. Chen, W. J. Zhou, and W. H. Zheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 191105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vučković, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Yokoyama and S. Noda, IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 386 (2004).

J. Opt. (1)

W. J. Zhou, B. Jiang, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, Y. F. Wang, C. L. Ma, M. X. Xing, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. 13, 015104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

W. J. Zhou, W. Chen, A. J. Liu, M. X. Xing, G. Ren, Y. J. Zhang, L. H. Chen, and W. H. Zheng, J. Opt. A 10, 095203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Nat. Photon. 1, 119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, and M. Mochizuki, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, Science 293, 1123 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semiconductors (1)

Z. I. Alferov, Semiconductors 32, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure of the LC-PCSEL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The electric field intensity of the modes at Γ 2 - 1 wavelength in and outside the structures of the (a) FP cavity, (b) PhC, and (c) LC-PCSEL is calculated by the FDTD method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light–current–voltage curve of the device and the cross section of the deep holes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Edge-emitting spectra of the LC-PCSEL and FP laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface-emitting spectrum of the LC-PCSEL.

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