Abstract

In this Letter, we have introduced a technique, new to our knowledge, to fabricate gratings on a waveguide of azo-functionalized polymeric films using a slit mask and a fast, direct-writing method. To prevent the destruction of the waveguide by the grating formation on the waveguide, we placed a slit mask on the waveguide. By properly adjusting the resonance, this grating can be used as an integrated wavelength filter. We have produced an attenuation of 13.4dB at 1562nm with a FWHM of 3.45nm. The grating has been fabricated as narrow as the width of the waveguide to couple filtered light into the waveguide by using a slit mask. Any light shifted from the resonance will pass through the waveguide undisturbed.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Song and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, and E. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1710(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Suh, H. Ryu, Y. Park, and M. C. Paek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 161111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Kobayashi, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Gharavi, H. Karimi-Alavijeh, E. Sarailou, M.-A. Baghban, and G.-M. Parsanasab, in Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Conference on Optics and Photonics (Optics and Photonics Society of Iran, 2008), pp. 170–173.
  13. J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Saadeh, A. Gharavi, D. Yu, and L. Yu, Macromolecules 30, 5403 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. R. Ulrich and R. Torge, Appl. Opt. 12, 2901 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Song and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Kobayashi, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, H. Ryu, Y. Park, and M. C. Paek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, and E. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1710(2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Saadeh, A. Gharavi, D. Yu, and L. Yu, Macromolecules 30, 5403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Ahn, S.-W.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alavijeh, H. K.

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baghban, M.-A.

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gharavi, H. Karimi-Alavijeh, E. Sarailou, M.-A. Baghban, and G.-M. Parsanasab, in Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Conference on Optics and Photonics (Optics and Photonics Society of Iran, 2008), pp. 170–173.

Boucher, R.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

Cha, D.-H.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, W.-J.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geary, K.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gharavi, A.

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Saadeh, A. Gharavi, D. Yu, and L. Yu, Macromolecules 30, 5403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Gharavi, H. Karimi-Alavijeh, E. Sarailou, M.-A. Baghban, and G.-M. Parsanasab, in Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Conference on Optics and Photonics (Optics and Photonics Society of Iran, 2008), pp. 170–173.

Gosselin, J.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ha, S. M.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

T. Kobayashi, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horng, S.-F.

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-S.

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, U.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

Hung, Y.-C.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Javadpour, S.

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

T. Kobayashi, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, and E. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1710(2002).
[CrossRef]

Karimi-Alavijeh, H.

A. Gharavi, H. Karimi-Alavijeh, E. Sarailou, M.-A. Baghban, and G.-M. Parsanasab, in Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Conference on Optics and Photonics (Optics and Photonics Society of Iran, 2008), pp. 170–173.

Kehagias, N.

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, and E. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1710(2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, and E. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1710(2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-S.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-D.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-S.

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.-H.

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lovera, P.

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marlow, F.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.-F.

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paek, M. C.

D. Suh, H. Ryu, Y. Park, and M. C. Paek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

D. Suh, H. Ryu, Y. Park, and M. C. Paek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parsanasab, G.-M.

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gharavi, H. Karimi-Alavijeh, E. Sarailou, M.-A. Baghban, and G.-M. Parsanasab, in Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Conference on Optics and Photonics (Optics and Photonics Society of Iran, 2008), pp. 170–173.

Pei, Q.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reboud, V.

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, G.

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.

D. Suh, H. Ryu, Y. Park, and M. C. Paek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saadeh, H.

H. Saadeh, A. Gharavi, D. Yu, and L. Yu, Macromolecules 30, 5403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarailou, E.

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Gharavi, H. Karimi-Alavijeh, E. Sarailou, M.-A. Baghban, and G.-M. Parsanasab, in Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Conference on Optics and Photonics (Optics and Photonics Society of Iran, 2008), pp. 170–173.

Schmidt, M.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, V.

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

R. Song and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

R. Song and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suh, D.

D. Suh, H. Ryu, Y. Park, and M. C. Paek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, in Integrated Optics, Vol.  7 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1979), pp. 13–90.

Torge, R.

Tripathy, S. K.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Volksen, W.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wülbern, J. H.

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

H. Saadeh, A. Gharavi, D. Yu, and L. Yu, Macromolecules 30, 5403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

H. Saadeh, A. Gharavi, D. Yu, and L. Yu, Macromolecules 30, 5403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, W.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zelsmann, M.

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.-H.

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

J. H. Wülbern, M. Schmidt, M. Eich, U. Hübner, R. Boucher, F. Marlow, and W. Volksen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221104(2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Reboud, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, M. Zelsmann, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, and S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Alavijeh, G.-M. Parsanasab, M.-A. Baghban, E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung, W. Yuan, D.-H. Cha, K. Geary, H. R. Fetterman, S. M. Ha, Q. Pei, J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, M.-S. Kwon, and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Lin, C. Cheng, H.-H. Liao, S.-F. Horng, H.-F. Meng, and C.-S. Hsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 063501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Song and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kang, J.-J. Kim, and E. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1710(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, H. Ryu, Y. Park, and M. C. Paek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarailou, A. Gharavi, S. Javadpour, and V. Shkunov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, W.-J. Chin, S.-S. Lee, S.-W. Ahn, and K.-D. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, Y. Kanamori, and K. Hane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 151106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

H. Saadeh, A. Gharavi, D. Yu, and L. Yu, Macromolecules 30, 5403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Tamir, in Integrated Optics, Vol.  7 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 1979), pp. 13–90.

A. Gharavi, H. Karimi-Alavijeh, E. Sarailou, M.-A. Baghban, and G.-M. Parsanasab, in Proceedings of the 14th Iranian Conference on Optics and Photonics (Optics and Photonics Society of Iran, 2008), pp. 170–173.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical structure of the polymeric material used in this work and (b) absorption spectrum of the polymeric material. This material was exposed to 532 nm for waveguide and grating writing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used to form Bragg gratings. M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; SLED, superluminescent light emitting diode, LASER, 980 nm diode laser; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Propagation of light in a waveguide before writing the grating. (b) Scattering of light in a waveguide with a grating wider than the waveguide without a slit mask where, as can be seen, the light is scattered.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Location of the aluminum slit mask placed on the waveguide where the slit width is slightly larger than the waveguide width. (b) Waveguide after writing the grating and removing the mask. The waveguide remained intact.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output signal exiting straight through the integrated waveguide grating; the inset shows the spectrum of the input signal.

Equations (1)

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Λ = λ 2 sin θ ,

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