Abstract

A technique for accurate measurement of the principle refractive indices and birefringence for silklike samples is presented. It is based on rotating the linear polarization of the illuminating light on a silk immersed in reference liquid to achieve index matching at the silk/liquid interface. The technique was used to measure the principal refractive indices of a P. eburnus radial silk at different strains. This in turn allows the calculation of strain-optic coefficients. The first measurement of the strain-optic coefficients of spider silk is presented. The technique is more generally applicable to strain-optic study of birefringent micro-optic samples.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

D. M. Kane, G. R. Staib, N. Naidoo, D. J. Little, and M. E. Herberstein, Proc. SPIE 7975, 79750G (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. M. Kane, A. M. Joyce, G. R. Staib, and M. E. Herberstein, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Kane, N. Naidoo, and G. R. Staib, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Heim, D. Keerl, and T. Scheibel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. A. Kluge, O. Rabotyagova, G. G. Leisk, and D. L. Kaplan, Trends Biotechnol. 26, 244 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Tajima and Y. Nishiyama, Opt. Rev. 15, 75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Viney, J. E. Trancik, J. T. Czernutska, and F. I. Bell, Polymer 47, 5633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Tajima and Y. Nishiyama, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1127(2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Köhler and F. Vollrath, J. Exp. Zool. 271, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Carmichael, J. Y. J. Barghout, and C. Viney, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 24, 219 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. F. Ashby, L. J. Gibson, U. Wegst, and R. Olive, Proc. R. Soc. A 450, 123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. L. Craig, G. D. Bernard, and J. A. Coddington, Evolution 48, 287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. G. Greenler, J. W. Hable, and P. O. Slane, Am. J. Phys. 58, 330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1968 (1)

Ashby, M. F.

M. F. Ashby, L. J. Gibson, U. Wegst, and R. Olive, Proc. R. Soc. A 450, 123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barghout, J. Y. J.

S. Carmichael, J. Y. J. Barghout, and C. Viney, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 24, 219 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, F. I.

C. Viney, J. E. Trancik, J. T. Czernutska, and F. I. Bell, Polymer 47, 5633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, G. D.

C. L. Craig, G. D. Bernard, and J. A. Coddington, Evolution 48, 287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Carmichael, S.

S. Carmichael, J. Y. J. Barghout, and C. Viney, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 24, 219 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coddington, J. A.

C. L. Craig, G. D. Bernard, and J. A. Coddington, Evolution 48, 287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Craig, C. L.

C. L. Craig, G. D. Bernard, and J. A. Coddington, Evolution 48, 287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Czernutska, J. T.

C. Viney, J. E. Trancik, J. T. Czernutska, and F. I. Bell, Polymer 47, 5633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, A.

Gibson, L. J.

M. F. Ashby, L. J. Gibson, U. Wegst, and R. Olive, Proc. R. Soc. A 450, 123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greenler, R. G.

R. G. Greenler, J. W. Hable, and P. O. Slane, Am. J. Phys. 58, 330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hable, J. W.

R. G. Greenler, J. W. Hable, and P. O. Slane, Am. J. Phys. 58, 330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hassan, T.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heim, M.

M. Heim, D. Keerl, and T. Scheibel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herberstein, M. E.

D. M. Kane, G. R. Staib, N. Naidoo, D. J. Little, and M. E. Herberstein, Proc. SPIE 7975, 79750G (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Kane, A. M. Joyce, G. R. Staib, and M. E. Herberstein, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, D.

Joyce, A. M.

D. M. Kane, A. M. Joyce, G. R. Staib, and M. E. Herberstein, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. M.

D. M. Kane, G. R. Staib, N. Naidoo, D. J. Little, and M. E. Herberstein, Proc. SPIE 7975, 79750G (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Kane, A. M. Joyce, G. R. Staib, and M. E. Herberstein, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Kane, N. Naidoo, and G. R. Staib, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little and D. M. Kane, Opt. Express 19, 19182(2011).

Kaplan, D. L.

J. A. Kluge, O. Rabotyagova, G. G. Leisk, and D. L. Kaplan, Trends Biotechnol. 26, 244 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keerl, D.

M. Heim, D. Keerl, and T. Scheibel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kiesel, S.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kluge, J. A.

J. A. Kluge, O. Rabotyagova, G. G. Leisk, and D. L. Kaplan, Trends Biotechnol. 26, 244 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhler, T.

T. Köhler and F. Vollrath, J. Exp. Zool. 271, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, M.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leisk, G. G.

J. A. Kluge, O. Rabotyagova, G. G. Leisk, and D. L. Kaplan, Trends Biotechnol. 26, 244 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, D. J.

D. M. Kane, G. R. Staib, N. Naidoo, D. J. Little, and M. E. Herberstein, Proc. SPIE 7975, 79750G (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little and D. M. Kane, Opt. Express 19, 19182(2011).

Miller, R. A.

Naidoo, N.

D. M. Kane, G. R. Staib, N. Naidoo, D. J. Little, and M. E. Herberstein, Proc. SPIE 7975, 79750G (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Kane, N. Naidoo, and G. R. Staib, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, Y.

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, 1957), p. 247.

Olive, R.

M. F. Ashby, L. J. Gibson, U. Wegst, and R. Olive, Proc. R. Soc. A 450, 123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peters, K.

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabotyagova, O.

J. A. Kluge, O. Rabotyagova, G. G. Leisk, and D. L. Kaplan, Trends Biotechnol. 26, 244 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheibel, T.

M. Heim, D. Keerl, and T. Scheibel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slane, P. O.

R. G. Greenler, J. W. Hable, and P. O. Slane, Am. J. Phys. 58, 330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Staib, G. R.

D. M. Kane, G. R. Staib, N. Naidoo, D. J. Little, and M. E. Herberstein, Proc. SPIE 7975, 79750G (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Kane, N. Naidoo, and G. R. Staib, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Kane, A. M. Joyce, G. R. Staib, and M. E. Herberstein, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajima, F.

Trancik, J. E.

C. Viney, J. E. Trancik, J. T. Czernutska, and F. I. Bell, Polymer 47, 5633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viney, C.

C. Viney, J. E. Trancik, J. T. Czernutska, and F. I. Bell, Polymer 47, 5633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Carmichael, J. Y. J. Barghout, and C. Viney, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 24, 219 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollrath, F.

T. Köhler and F. Vollrath, J. Exp. Zool. 271, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waxler, R. M.

Wegst, U.

M. F. Ashby, L. J. Gibson, U. Wegst, and R. Olive, Proc. R. Soc. A 450, 123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

R. G. Greenler, J. W. Hable, and P. O. Slane, Am. J. Phys. 58, 330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

M. Heim, D. Keerl, and T. Scheibel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bioinspir. Biomim. (1)

D. M. Kane, A. M. Joyce, G. R. Staib, and M. E. Herberstein, Bioinspir. Biomim. 5, 036004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evolution (1)

C. L. Craig, G. D. Bernard, and J. A. Coddington, Evolution 48, 287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1)

S. Carmichael, J. Y. J. Barghout, and C. Viney, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 24, 219 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. M. Kane, N. Naidoo, and G. R. Staib, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 073509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Zool. (1)

T. Köhler and F. Vollrath, J. Exp. Zool. 271, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Kiesel, K. Peters, T. Hassan, and M. Kowalsky, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3144 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

F. Tajima and Y. Nishiyama, Opt. Rev. 15, 75 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

C. Viney, J. E. Trancik, J. T. Czernutska, and F. I. Bell, Polymer 47, 5633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. A (1)

M. F. Ashby, L. J. Gibson, U. Wegst, and R. Olive, Proc. R. Soc. A 450, 123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. M. Kane, G. R. Staib, N. Naidoo, D. J. Little, and M. E. Herberstein, Proc. SPIE 7975, 79750G (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

J. A. Kluge, O. Rabotyagova, G. G. Leisk, and D. L. Kaplan, Trends Biotechnol. 26, 244 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, 1957), p. 247.

D. J. Little and D. M. Kane, Opt. Express 19, 19182(2011).

Cargille Labs (www.cargille.com).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarizer positions for immersed silk illuminated with light polarized parallel (left) and perpendicular (right) to the silk axis. Minimum visibility occurs at some orientation θ (center).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical set of measurements for measuring the principal refractive indices of a radial silk sample. Three oils were used; data points are shown as black triangles, while the gray curve is Eq. (1) with n p = 1.5407 and n s = 1.5329 . Uncertainty bars along both axes are smaller than the data points themselves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured principal refractive indices of P. eburnus radial silk as a function of strain. Straight lines indicate linear fits to the data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured values for Δ ( 1 / n 2 ) as a function of strain for a P. eburnus radial silk. Dotted and bold lines indicate linear fits for n p (black points) and n s (white points), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured p 1111 and p 2211 Values for Different Optical Materials

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n silk ( θ ) = ( cos 2 θ n p 2 + sin 2 θ n s 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
n s = ( n p 2 n silk 2 sin 2 θ n p 2 n silk 2 cos 2 θ ) 1 / 2 .
n s = ( n p 2 n oil 1 2 sin 2 θ 1 n p 2 n oil 1 2 cos 2 θ 1 ) 1 / 2 ,
n s = ( n p 2 n oil 2 2 sin 2 θ 2 n p 2 n oil 2 2 cos 2 θ 2 ) 1 / 2 .
n p = n oil 1 n oil 2 ( sin 2 θ 2 sin 2 θ 1 n oil 2 2 sin 2 θ 2 n oil 1 2 sin 2 θ 1 ) 1 / 2 .
Δ ( 1 / κ i j ) = p i j k l ε k l ,
Δ ( 1 / n p 2 ) = p 1111 ε ,
Δ ( 1 / n s 2 ) = p 2211 ε .

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