Abstract

Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) dispersible in polar liquid without surface functionalization by organic molecules have been realized by simultaneously doping n and p type impurities. We show that the codoped Si-NCs are stable in methanol for more than five months, while intrinsic Si-NCs prepared by the same procedure form large agglomerates. The different behavior of the intrinsic and codoped Si-NCs in solutions suggests that doped impurities exist on the surface of Si-NCs and the surface potential is large enough to prevent the agglomeration. The colloidal solution of codoped Si-NCs exhibits broad photoluminescence with the maximum in the near infrared range (1.11.3eV).

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

X. Chen, X. Pi, and D. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 661(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Pi, X. Chen, and D. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 9838(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fukuda, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, J. Lumin. 131, 1066 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. W. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, Nano Lett. 10, 1154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Park, L. Gu, G. Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Mater. 8, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gupta, M. T. Swihart, and H. Wiggers, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 696 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Erogbogbo, K. Y. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, ACS Nano 2, 873 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Pi, R. Gresback, R. W. Liptak, S. A. Campbell, and U. Kortshagen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Sato and M. T. Swihart, Chem. Mater. 18, 4083 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 4550 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Fujii, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takase, K. Ninomiya, and S. Hayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, Nano Lett. 4, 1463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. He, and M. T. Swihart, Langmuir 20, 4720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Fujii, K. Toshikiyo, Y. Takase, Y. Yamaguchi, and S. Hayashi, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, Nano Lett. 2, 681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Bayliss, R. Heald, D. I. Fletcher, and L. D. Buckberry, Adv. Mater. 11, 318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, Phys. Status Solidi B 215, 871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, and E. Martin, Thin Solid Films 255, 27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. T. Canham, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1046 (1990).

Allan, G.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, and E. Martin, Thin Solid Films 255, 27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anthony, R.

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. W. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, Nano Lett. 10, 1154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbara, P. F.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, Nano Lett. 2, 681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bayliss, S. C.

S. C. Bayliss, R. Heald, D. I. Fletcher, and L. D. Buckberry, Adv. Mater. 11, 318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S. N.

J. Park, L. Gu, G. Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Mater. 8, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bsiesy, A.

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckberry, L. D.

S. C. Bayliss, R. Heald, D. I. Fletcher, and L. D. Buckberry, Adv. Mater. 11, 318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S. A.

X. D. Pi, R. Gresback, R. W. Liptak, S. A. Campbell, and U. Kortshagen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

L. T. Canham, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1046 (1990).

Cantele, G.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, X. Pi, and D. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 661(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Pi, X. Chen, and D. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 9838(2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. Y.

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. W. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, Nano Lett. 10, 1154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degoli, E.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delerue, C.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, and E. Martin, Thin Solid Films 255, 27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellingson, R. J.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

English, D. S.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, Nano Lett. 2, 681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erogbogbo, F.

F. Erogbogbo, K. Y. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, ACS Nano 2, 873 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, D. I.

S. C. Bayliss, R. Heald, D. I. Fletcher, and L. D. Buckberry, Adv. Mater. 11, 318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

M. Fukuda, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, J. Lumin. 131, 1066 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takase, K. Ninomiya, and S. Hayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, K. Toshikiyo, Y. Takase, Y. Yamaguchi, and S. Hayashi, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, M.

M. Fukuda, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, J. Lumin. 131, 1066 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Galeckas, A.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gresback, R.

X. D. Pi, R. Gresback, R. W. Liptak, S. A. Campbell, and U. Kortshagen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grivickas, V.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, L.

J. Park, L. Gu, G. Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Mater. 8, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, A.

A. Gupta, M. T. Swihart, and H. Wiggers, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 696 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fukuda, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, J. Lumin. 131, 1066 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takase, K. Ninomiya, and S. Hayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, K. Toshikiyo, Y. Takase, Y. Yamaguchi, and S. Hayashi, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1990 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

X. Li, Y. He, and M. T. Swihart, Langmuir 20, 4720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heald, R.

S. C. Bayliss, R. Heald, D. I. Fletcher, and L. D. Buckberry, Adv. Mater. 11, 318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heckler, H.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, Phys. Status Solidi B 215, 871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. W. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, Nano Lett. 10, 1154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoshino, A.

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 4550 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iori, F.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jorne, J.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knutsen, K. P.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, F.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, Phys. Status Solidi B 215, 871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korgel, B. A.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, Nano Lett. 2, 681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kortshagen, U.

X. D. Pi, R. Gresback, R. W. Liptak, S. A. Campbell, and U. Kortshagen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kortshagen, U. W.

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. W. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, Nano Lett. 10, 1154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovalev, D.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, Phys. Status Solidi B 215, 871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lalic, N.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lannoo, M.

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, and E. Martin, Thin Solid Films 255, 27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. He, and M. T. Swihart, Langmuir 20, 4720 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. F.

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, Nano Lett. 4, 1463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linnros, J.

J. Linnros, N. Lalic, A. Galeckas, and V. Grivickas, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liptak, R. W.

X. D. Pi, R. Gresback, R. W. Liptak, S. A. Campbell, and U. Kortshagen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luther, J. M.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magri, R.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maltzahn, G.

J. Park, L. Gu, G. Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Mater. 8, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marri, I.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, E.

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, and E. Martin, Thin Solid Films 255, 27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, W. K.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihalcescu, I.

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, F.

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ninno, D.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ninomiya, K.

M. Fujii, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Takase, K. Ninomiya, and S. Hayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ossicini, S.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Park, L. Gu, G. Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Mater. 8, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pell, L. E.

D. S. English, L. E. Pell, Z. Yu, P. F. Barbara, and B. A. Korgel, Nano Lett. 2, 681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pi, X.

X. Pi, X. Chen, and D. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 9838(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, X. Pi, and D. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 661(2011).
[CrossRef]

Pi, X. D.

X. D. Pi, R. Gresback, R. W. Liptak, S. A. Campbell, and U. Kortshagen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polisski, G.

D. Kovalev, H. Heckler, G. Polisski, and F. Koch, Phys. Status Solidi B 215, 871 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

F. Erogbogbo, K. Y. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, ACS Nano 2, 873 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pulci, O.

F. Iori, E. Degoli, R. Magri, I. Marri, G. Cantele, D. Ninno, F. Trani, O. Pulci, and S. Ossicini, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Romestain, R.

C. Delerue, M. Lannoo, G. Allan, E. Martin, I. Mihalcescu, J. C. Vial, R. Romestain, F. Muller, and A. Bsiesy, Phys. Rev. Lett. , 75, 2228 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, I.

F. Erogbogbo, K. Y. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, ACS Nano 2, 873 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruckenstein, E.

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, Nano Lett. 4, 1463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruoslahti, E.

J. Park, L. Gu, G. Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Mater. 8, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sailor, M. J.

J. Park, L. Gu, G. Maltzahn, E. Ruoslahti, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, Nat. Mater. 8, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, S.

S. Sato and M. T. Swihart, Chem. Mater. 18, 4083 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

M. C. Beard, K. P. Knutsen, P. Yu, J. M. Luther, Q. Song, W. K. Metzger, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, Nano Lett. 7, 2506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swihart, M. T.

A. Gupta, M. T. Swihart, and H. Wiggers, Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 696 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Erogbogbo, K. Y. Yong, I. Roy, G. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, ACS Nano 2, 873 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato and M. T. Swihart, Chem. Mater. 18, 4083 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. He, and M. T. Swihart, Langmuir 20, 4720 (2004).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical transmittance spectrum of methanol in which intrinsic Si-NCs are dispersed (one day after etching). Inset: photographs of the solution one day (left) and one week (right) after etching. (b) PL spectra of intrinsic Si-NCs before etching (solid curve) and one day after etching (dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical transmittance spectra of methanol in which P and B codoped Si-NCs are dispersed. The data of the samples one day (solid curve) and five months (dashed curve) after etching are shown. Inset: photographs of the solution one day (left) and five months (right) after etching. (b) TEM image of P and B codoped Si-NCs seven days after etching. Inset: high-resolution TEM image of a P and B codoped Si-NC. (c) TEM image of codoped Si-NCs nine months after etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PL spectrum of P and B codoped Si-NCs before etching (solid curve) and those one day (dashed curve), three months (dotted curve), and five months (dashed- dotted curve) after etching. (b) PL lifetimes as a function of the photon energy of P and B codoped Si-NC before etching (▪) and those one day (•), three months (▴), and five months (▾) after etching.

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