Abstract

We report on a noncontact photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technique in which a low-coherence interferometer [(LCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT) hardware] is utilized as the acoustic detector. A synchronization approach is used to lock the LCI system at its highly sensitive region for photoacoustic detection. The technique is experimentally verified by the imaging of a scattering phantom embedded with hairs and the blood vessels within a mouse ear in vitro. The system’s axial and lateral resolutions are evaluated at 60 and 30μm, respectively. The experimental results indicate that PAI in a noncontact detection mode is possible with high resolution and high bandwidth. The proposed approach lends itself to a natural integration of PAI with OCT, rather than a combination of two separate and independent systems.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liu, Q. Wei, J. Wang, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1359 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Alex, A.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arbeit, J. M.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, W.

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, Appl. Opt. 47, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berer, T.

Betz, B.

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burgholzer, P.

Carp, S. A.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duque, S. Q.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erpelding, T. N.

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, A.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haltmeier, M.

Hochreiner, A.

Hofer, B.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ing, R. K.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jankovic, L.

Jiao, S.

Karabutov, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kovalski, J.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, S.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, G. A.

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

Laufer, J.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, Appl. Opt. 47, 561 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Liu, T.

Maslov, K.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Express 17, 16450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuster, R.

Oladipupo, S. S.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paltauf, G.

Pashley, M. D.

Paul, M.

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pouet, B. F.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, D.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Santeford, A. C.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shohet, R. V.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. V.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 36, 1134 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, L. Jankovic, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 278 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, K. Maslov, G. Ku, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Express 17, 16450 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 35, 5758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, Opt. Lett. 33, 929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

Xie, Z.

Xing, D.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zamiri, S.

Zeng, Y.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, E.

Zhang, E. Z.

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. F.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. F. Pouet, R. K. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Paul, B. Betz, and W. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1569 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Carp, A. Guerra, S. Q. Duque, and V. Venugopalan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5772 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Blood

S. S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, A. C. Santeford, J. Yao, J. Kovalski, R. V. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, Blood 117, 4142 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

L. V. Wang, Med. Phys. 35, 5758 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kruger, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, Med. Phys. 26, 1832 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon.

L. V. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

Y. Wang, D. Xing, Y. Zeng, and Q. Chen, Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3117 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

E. Z. Zhang, J. Laufer, B. Považay, A. Alex, B. Hofer, W. Drexler, and P. Beard, Proc. SPIE 7564, 75640U (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoacoustic signals detected from a black tape sample: (a) transient displacement and (b) corresponding transient pressure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results obtained from a scattering phantom in which three hairs are placed: (a) typical B-scan image and (b) corresponding maximum intensity projection along the depth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaging of the blood vessels within a mouse pinna in vitro. Inset, photograph of the area imaged by the system. Note: the photograph was digitally enhanced to more clearly show the blood vessels.

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