Abstract

Crystalline Ge was induced space selectively inside a borosilicate glass by 800nm, 250kHz femtosecond laser irradiation. Micro-Raman spectra and x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the laser-induced crystals were cubic Ge. A periodic structure consisting of Ge crystalline lines was inscribed in the glass sample by continuously moving the focal point of the laser beam. Large third-order nonlinear optical properties and ultrafast response time were observed from the crystallization region owing to highly optical nonlinearity of Ge crystals. These results may find some applications in fabrication of functional optical and photonic devices, such as optical circuits.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2008 (3)

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, Opt. Lett. 33, 360 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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N. Takeshima, Y. Kuroiwaa, Y. Naritaa, S. Tanakaa, and K. Hirao, Opt. Express 12, 4019 (2004).
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J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
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Benino, Y.

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105 (2006).
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Bovatsek, J.

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R. J. Kobliska, S. A. Solin, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, R. Alben, M. F. Thorpe, and D. Weaire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 725 (1972).
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Chen, F.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
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D. F. Eaton, Science 253, 281 (1991).
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Franzo, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
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Fujiwara, T.

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P.

Hagan, D. J.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Honma, T.

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

Jiang, N.

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. J. Kobliska, S. A. Solin, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, R. Alben, M. F. Thorpe, and D. Weaire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 725 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuroiwaa, Y.

Lakshminarayana, G.

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Lin, G.

Lin, T.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, F.

Ma, H.

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsuyu, T.

Miura, K.

Naritaa, Y.

Negro, L. Dal

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, B.

Qiu, J.

F. Luo, B. Qian, G. Lin, J. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Song, H. Sun, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, Opt. Express 18, 6262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 25, 408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Royon, A.

Said, A. A.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

Selders, M.

R. J. Kobliska, S. A. Solin, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, R. Alben, M. F. Thorpe, and D. Weaire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 725 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Shirai, M.

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solin, S. A.

R. J. Kobliska, S. A. Solin, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, R. Alben, M. F. Thorpe, and D. Weaire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 725 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Stone, A.

Stone, G.

Sun, H.

Takeshima, N.

Tanakaa, S.

Thorpe, M. F.

R. J. Kobliska, S. A. Solin, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, R. Alben, M. F. Thorpe, and D. Weaire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 725 (1972).
[CrossRef]

van Stryland, E. W.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weaire, D.

R. J. Kobliska, S. A. Solin, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, R. Alben, M. F. Thorpe, and D. Weaire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 725 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, Z.

Yang, Q.

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Zhao, Q.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, C.

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 2230 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, L. Wang, Y. Dai, H. Ma, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. Qiu, Appl. Phys. B 93, 613 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. T. Canham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Honma, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. S. Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, IEEE, J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photon. 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Lin, Q. Yang, J. Si, T. Chen, F. Chen, X. Wang, X. Hou, and K. Hirao, Opt. Commun. 275, 230 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. J. Kobliska, S. A. Solin, M. Selders, R. K. Chang, R. Alben, M. F. Thorpe, and D. Weaire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 725 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. F. Eaton, Science 253, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microphotographs of the femtosecond laser-induced structure in the glass (irradiation time: 0.2, 1, 8, and 64 s , respectively; laser power, 750 mW ). (b) Dependence of the size of the laser-induced zone on the laser power and irradiation time. (c) Simulation of the temperature distribution along the propagation direction of the laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Different positions in the laser direct written line shown in microscope images and (b) their corresponding micro-Raman spectra. (c) Micro-Raman mapping at 297 cm 1 , which is the characteristic peak of crystalline Si. (d) XRD patterns for irradiated and unirradiated areas in the glass sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Microphotograph of the induced grating and (b) diffraction patterns observed on the screen. (c) Typical Z-scan normalized transmittance curves for open and closed-aperture measurements of the irradiated and unirradiated areas in the glass sample.

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