Abstract

We report on the antireflective characteristics of porous silicon (Si) nanocolumnar structures consisting of graded refractive index layers and carry out a rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation. The refractive index of Si is gradually modified by a tilted angle electron beam evaporation method. For the fabricated Si nanostructure with a Gaussian index profile of 100nm, reflectivity (R) of less than 7.5% is obtained with an average value of approximately 2.9% at the wavelength region of 400800nm. The experimental results are reasonably consistent with the simulated results for the design of antireflective Si nanostructures.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Jaing, M. C. Liu, C. C. Lee, W. H. Cho, W. T. Shen, C. J. Tang, and B. H. Liao, Appl. Opt. 47, C266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. Chen, H. C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Y. Lin, J. Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, Thin Solid Films 502, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Mahdjoub and L. Zighed, Thin Solid Films 478, 299(2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartzsch, H.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, Thin Solid Films 502, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, R.

Chang, A. S. P.

Chang, H. C.

Chang, Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, H. C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Y. Lin, J. Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. H.

Fourmond, E.

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frach, P.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, Thin Solid Films 502, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goedicke, K.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, Thin Solid Films 502, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

Helgert, M.

Heyroth, F.

Hsu, C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. F.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaing, C. C.

Jen, Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Knez, M.

Lange, S.

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, Thin Solid Films 502, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

Lee, Y. T.

Lelievre, J. F.

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemiti, M.

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, B. H.

Lin, S. Y.

M. Chen, H. C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Y. Lin, J. Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Lipinski, M.

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. C.

Liu, T.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Lo, H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahdjoub, A.

A. Mahdjoub and L. Zighed, Thin Solid Films 478, 299(2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

M. Chen, H. C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Y. Lin, J. Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Shen, W. T.

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Song, Y. M.

Szeghalmi, A.

Tang, C. J.

Xi, J. Q.

M. Chen, H. C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Y. Lin, J. Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Yu, J. S.

Zieba, P.

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zighed, L.

A. Mahdjoub and L. Zighed, Thin Solid Films 478, 299(2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photon. 1, 176 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

M. Lipinski, A. Kaminski, J. F. Lelievre, M. Lemiti, E. Fourmond, and P. Zieba, Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 1566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

A. Mahdjoub and L. Zighed, Thin Solid Films 478, 299(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Lange, H. Bartzsch, P. Frach, and K. Goedicke, Thin Solid Films 502, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength for low-n Si films deposited at θ tilt = 0 ° , 40 ° , 55 ° , 70 ° , and 88 ° . The inset shows the corresponding refractive index spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectivity as a function of wavelength at normal incidence for 100 - nm -thick Si films for linear, quintic, and Gaussian index profiles, respectively. For comparison, the dashed curves show the calculated reflectivities without considering the extinction coefficient. The inset shows the calculated reflectivity spectra for Gaussian index profiles of 50, 100, 150, and 200 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-sectional SEM images of porous Si nanocolumnar films deposited on Si substrate for (i) Gaussian index profile ( 100 nm ), (ii) quintic index profile ( 100 nm ), (iii) linear index profile ( 100 nm ), and (iv) Gaussian index profile ( 200 nm ); (b) measured reflectivity spectra at normal incidence with different index profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light incident angle dependent reflectivity of 100 - nm -thick antireflective (AR) films at a wavelength of 633 nm for linear, quintic, and Gaussian index profiles. The inset shows the measured reflectivity spectra of the AR film with a Gaussian index profile of 100 nm for different angles of incident light.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thicknesses of Four Layers at Different Tilted Angles and Their Measured Refractive Indices for Different Graded Index Profiles

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