Abstract

Large-area high-spatial-frequency patterns (HSFLs) of λ/6 periodicity have been generated by a nanojoule-femtosecond laser scanning technique (80MHz, 170fs, 700950nm) at the silicon–air interface. The excellent large-area uniformity allowed reproducible and accurate measurements of the periodicity. Variation of experimental param eters as illumination geometry, and pulse energy and number showed no influence on the ripple spacing. A wavelength dependence was observed and compared to current models of HSFL formation. A particular second-armonic model was found to match the results best but needs to take into account transient changes in the refractive index under laser exposure. A second-harmonic mechanism is further supported by direct spectroscopic observation.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, T. Velten, and K. König, Opt. Express 13, 6651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Anhut, T.

Benkirane-Jessel, N.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burke, H. H.

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Costache, F.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daminelli, G.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Driel, H.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Epple, M.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Facca, S.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, R.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fioretti, F.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

Kovtun, A.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mainard, S.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendoza, C.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyaji, G.

Miyazaki, K.

Molian, P.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oulad-Abdelghani, M.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1997), Vol.  3.

Preston, J.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, I.

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, D.

Schuck, H.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Velten, T.

Voegel, J. C.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, F. L.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1997), Vol.  3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscopy and (b)–(d) SEM images of a 1 cm 2 silicon wafer with 1089 microsquares, each of them almost homogeneously filled with HSFL nanostructures of uniform periodicity. (b) gives a global view of a square; (c) and (d) show details of the HSFL. The double arrow represents the polarization of the laser irradiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Visualization of the measurement of the HSFL periodicity. (b) 2D-FFT of image (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of experimental data and different theoretical models of HSFL spacing as a function of the wavelength. The experimental data clearly follows the λ / 2 n λ model with a constant deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of radiation emitted during laser processing and HSFL formation at 800 nm . In (a), emission of all radiation ( plasma emission + SHG ) is observable. In (b), the SHG signal has been isolated from plasma radiation and scattered laser light by means of a bandpass filter centered at 400 nm with a bandwidth of 40 nm . A higher-order artifact of the laser line due to the grating of the spectrometer was ruled out this way.

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