Abstract

Large-area high-spatial-frequency patterns (HSFLs) of λ/6 periodicity have been generated by a nanojoule-femtosecond laser scanning technique (80MHz, 170fs, 700950nm) at the silicon–air interface. The excellent large-area uniformity allowed reproducible and accurate measurements of the periodicity. Variation of experimental param eters as illumination geometry, and pulse energy and number showed no influence on the ripple spacing. A wavelength dependence was observed and compared to current models of HSFL formation. A particular second-armonic model was found to match the results best but needs to take into account transient changes in the refractive index under laser exposure. A second-harmonic mechanism is further supported by direct spectroscopic observation.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2005

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, T. Velten, and K. König, Opt. Express 13, 6651 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Anhut, T.

Benkirane-Jessel, N.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burke, H. H.

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Costache, F.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daminelli, G.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Driel, H.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Epple, M.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Facca, S.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, R.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fioretti, F.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

Kovtun, A.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mainard, S.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendoza, C.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyaji, G.

Miyazaki, K.

Molian, P.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oulad-Abdelghani, M.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1997), Vol.  3.

Preston, J.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, I.

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, D.

Schuck, H.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Velten, T.

Voegel, J. C.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, F. L.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208/209, 486 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials

X. Zhang, A. Kovtun, C. Mendoza, M. Oulad-Abdelghani, S. Facca, F. Fioretti, J. C. Voegel, S. Mainard, M. Epple, and N. Benkirane-Jessel, Biomaterials 31, 6013 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Jellison Jr. and H. H. Burke, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 841 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

J. E. Sipe, J. Young, J. Preston, and H. Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, Thin Solid Films 467, 334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1997), Vol.  3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscopy and (b)–(d) SEM images of a 1 cm 2 silicon wafer with 1089 microsquares, each of them almost homogeneously filled with HSFL nanostructures of uniform periodicity. (b) gives a global view of a square; (c) and (d) show details of the HSFL. The double arrow represents the polarization of the laser irradiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Visualization of the measurement of the HSFL periodicity. (b) 2D-FFT of image (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of experimental data and different theoretical models of HSFL spacing as a function of the wavelength. The experimental data clearly follows the λ / 2 n λ model with a constant deviation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of radiation emitted during laser processing and HSFL formation at 800 nm . In (a), emission of all radiation ( plasma emission + SHG ) is observable. In (b), the SHG signal has been isolated from plasma radiation and scattered laser light by means of a bandpass filter centered at 400 nm with a bandwidth of 40 nm . A higher-order artifact of the laser line due to the grating of the spectrometer was ruled out this way.

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