Abstract

The speed of image processing is limited by image acquisition circuitry. While optical pattern recognition tech niques can reduce the computational burden on digital image processing, their image correlation rates are typically low due to the use of spatial optical elements. Here we report a method that overcomes this limitation and enables fast real-time analog image recognition at a record correlation rate of 36.7MHz—1000 times higher rates than conventional methods. This technique seamlessly performs image acquisition, correlation, and signal integration all optically in the time domain before analog-to-digital conversion by virtue of optical space-to-time mapping.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing(Prentice-Hall, 1989).
  2. U. Meyer-Baese, Digital Signal Processing with Field Programmable Gate Arrays (Springer, 2007).
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2010

B. Jalali, P. Soon-Shiong, and K. Goda, Opt. Photon. 2, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Watanabe, Y. Ichikawa, R. Akiyama, and K. Kodate, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. L. Horner and B. Javidi, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

F. T. S. Yu and X. J. Lu, Opt. Commun. 52, 10 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, R.

E. Watanabe, Y. Ichikawa, R. Akiyama, and K. Kodate, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, C. C.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

B. Jalali, P. Soon-Shiong, and K. Goda, Opt. Photon. 2, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

J. L. Horner and B. Javidi, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, Y.

E. Watanabe, Y. Ichikawa, R. Akiyama, and K. Kodate, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K. P.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A. K.

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing(Prentice-Hall, 1989).

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, P. Soon-Shiong, and K. Goda, Opt. Photon. 2, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Horner and B. Javidi, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jutamulia, S.

S. Jutamulia, in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering(Taylor & Francis, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 2892–2898.

Kippelen, B.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kodate, K.

E. Watanabe, Y. Ichikawa, R. Akiyama, and K. Kodate, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. J.

F. T. S. Yu and X. J. Lu, Opt. Commun. 52, 10 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Baese, U.

U. Meyer-Baese, Digital Signal Processing with Field Programmable Gate Arrays (Springer, 2007).

Moslehi, B.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Newton, S. A.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Soon-Shiong, P.

B. Jalali, P. Soon-Shiong, and K. Goda, Opt. Photon. 2, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsia, K. K.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. L.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, E.

E. Watanabe, Y. Ichikawa, R. Akiyama, and K. Kodate, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu and X. J. Lu, Opt. Commun. 52, 10 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

K. P. Jackson, S. A. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, and H. J. Shaw, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 33, 193 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

E. Watanabe, Y. Ichikawa, R. Akiyama, and K. Kodate, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 5964 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, Nature 458, 1145 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

F. T. S. Yu and X. J. Lu, Opt. Commun. 52, 10 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. L. Horner and B. Javidi, Opt. Eng. 33, 1752 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon.

B. Jalali, P. Soon-Shiong, and K. Goda, Opt. Photon. 2, 32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing(Prentice-Hall, 1989).

U. Meyer-Baese, Digital Signal Processing with Field Programmable Gate Arrays (Springer, 2007).

Amnis Corporation, http://www.amnis.com.

S. Jutamulia, in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering(Taylor & Francis, 2003), Vol.  1, pp. 2892–2898.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of the OTAIC. Large and small correlation output values are generated in (a) matched and (b) unmatched cases, respectively. In both cases, the test time-encoded image is modulated by the reference image to obtain a modulated image, which is integrated over time to yield the inner product of the test and reference images, which is used as a correlation output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the OTAIC on the STEAM platform. (a) STEAM with the OTAIC. (b) Details of the OTAIC that performs the optical analog image correlation detection. (c) Evolution of the optical pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation output for various test barcode patterns against a fixed reference pattern (1001011001): test patterns which are (i) equal to, (ii) very different from, (iii) only 1 bit different from, and (iv) completely opposite to the reference pattern. The largest peak (i) is produced when the test and reference patterns are matched, while the smaller peaks indicate the absence of a match. The largest peak with the opposite sign (iv) appears when the image and reference patterns are opposite.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Demonstration of the real-time frame-by-frame analog image correlation detection. The correlation was obtained for a fixed test barcode (1001011001) against a reference barcode that is updated at every frame for all possible 2 10 = 1024 reference patterns randomly. The positively largest peak indicates the match between the test and reference patterns, while the smaller peaks show their disagreement.

Equations (1)

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( T * R ) ( t ) = T ( τ ) R ( t + τ ) d τ ,

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