Abstract

We report on the first (to our knowledge) experimental observation of higher-order modes guided by soliton-induced waveguides in nematic liquid crystals. We find that the nematicon waveguides operate in a bounded power region specific to each guided mode. Below this region, the guided beams diffract; above this region, the mode mixing and coupling give rise to an unstable output.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. M. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapmen and Hall, 1983).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  22. C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2007 (1)

J. F. Henninot, J. F. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 735 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, Opt. Express 12, 6524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, Opt. Commun. 233, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature 387, 858 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Adamski, A.

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, Opt. Commun. 233, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

Alberucci, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asquini, R.

J. F. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Beeckman, J.

Belic, M.

Blach, J. F.

J. F. Henninot, J. F. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cambournac, C.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 735 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424(2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, Opt. Commun. 233, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conti, C.

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 31, 2030 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

d’Alessandro, A.

J. F. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Debailleul, M.

J. F. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Denz, C.

Desyatnikov, A. S.

Fernandez, F. A.

Fratalocchi, A.

Haelterman, M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 735 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424(2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, Opt. Commun. 233, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henninot, J. F.

J. F. Henninot, J. F. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hutsebaut, X.

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424(2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 735 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, Opt. Commun. 233, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izdebskaya, Ya. V.

James, R.

Kaiser, F.

Khoo, I. C.

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Yu. S.

Krolikowski, W.

Krolikowski, W. Z.

Love, J. D.

A. M. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapmen and Hall, 1983).

Mitchell, M.

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature 387, 858 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, R. James, and F. A. Fernandez, Opt. Express 18, 3311 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 735 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424(2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, Opt. Commun. 233, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 31, 2030 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, Opt. Express 12, 6524 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 26, 1690 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, Opt. Lett. 26, 1791 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petter, J.

Piccardi, A.

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

Segev, M.

Shih, M.-F.

Shvedov, V. G.

Snyder, A. M.

A. M. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapmen and Hall, 1983).

Stepken, A.

Umeton, C.

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanbrabant, P. J. M.

Warenghem, M.

J. F. Henninot, J. F. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Piccardi, A. Alberucci, and G. Assanto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 735 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

J. F. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d’Alessandro, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 6, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Henninot, J. F. Blach, and M. Warenghem, J. Opt. A 9, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature 387, 858 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, Opt. Commun. 233, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Petter and C. Denz, Opt. Commun. 188, 55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. M. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapmen and Hall, 1983).

Yu. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup: L1, L2, the green ( λ 1 = 532 nm ) and red ( λ 2 = 633 nm ) cw lasers; λ / 2 , half- wavelength plates; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; MO, micro- objectives; F, filter; CCD, camera. Top view of (b) ordinary and (c)–(e) extraordinary beams: (b), (c) green beam ( P = 2 mW ); (d) diffracting; (e) nematicon-guided red beam (power 82 μW ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam HWHM w x , y (dots) of (a) green nematicon and (b) red fundamental guided mode; the mean radius and standard deviation of a circular fit are shown with the solid curve and error bars. The shaded area in (b) marks the region of stable guiding; the insets show input beams. (c), (d) Averaged intensity distributions of the mode guided by nematicons of powers (c) 1.5 mW and (d) 4 mW ; the window is 67.3 μm × 67.3 μm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results for (a), (b) H 10 ; (c), (d) H 01 ; and (e), (f) H 11 modes launched in the red at the input and guided by a nematicon. (a), (c), (e) HWHM versus nematicon power P; the shaded regions indicate domains of stable guiding. (b), (d), (f) Averaged intensity distributions for P = 1.5 mW ; the windows are 67.3 μm × 67.3 μm in (b), (d) and 80.7 μm × 80.7 μm in (f). The insets show input profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results at the cell output for (a), (b) H 20 and (c), (d) H 02 modes guided by a nematicon. (a), (c) HWHM versus nematicon power P. (b), (d) Averaged intensity outputs for P = 2 mW in the windows 80.7 μm × 80.7 μm ; the insets show input profiles.

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