Abstract

We propose a multimode interference coupler (MMI) design for high-index-contrast technologies based on a shallowly etched multimode region, which is, for the first time to our knowledge, directly coupled to deeply etched input and output waveguides. This reduces the phase errors associated with the high-index contrast, while still allowing for a very compact layout. Using this structure, we fabricate a 2×4 MMI operating as a 90° hybrid, with a footprint of only 0.65mm×0.53mm, including all the structures necessary to couple light to a fiber array. We experimentally demonstrate a common mode rejection ratio better than 20dBe and phase errors better than ±5° in a 50nm bandwidth.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (5)

S. Jeong and K. Morito, Opt. Express 18, 4275 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1485 (2010).

A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 35, 2864 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).

1994 (1)

1986 (1)

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bach, H.-G.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Bachmann, M.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Barkai, A.

Besse, P.

Bogaerts, W.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cheben, P.

Chen, R. T.

Dai, D.

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 242 (2009).

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dumon, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Elek, N.

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1485 (2010).

Halir, R.

He, S.

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 242 (2009).

Hosseini, A.

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1485 (2010).

Huang, J.

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).

Janz, S.

Jeong, S.

Jones, R.

Kim, D.

Kunkel, R.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Kwong, D.

Laere, F. V.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Leonhardt, C.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Liu, A.

Matiss, A.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Melchior, H.

Molina-Fernández, I.

Morito, K.

Nguyen, H.

Niemeier, T.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

Osgood, R.

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).

Post, E.

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1485 (2010).

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Scarmozzino, R.

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).

Scheerlinck, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Schell, M.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Schmid, J.

Schmidt, D.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Selvaraja, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Subbaraman, H.

Taillaert, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 242 (2009).

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1485 (2010).

Thourhout, D. V.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ulrich, R.

Umbach, A.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[PubMed]

Xu, D.-X.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292 (1998).

Y. Tang, D. Dai, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 242 (2009).

D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, G. T. Reed, and J.-M. Fedeli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1485 (2010).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, F. V. Laere, S. Selvaraja, S. Scheerlinck, D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 1551 (2010).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, Nature 464, 80 (2010).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

Available at: http://www.epixfab.eu.

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMK5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the proposed MMI geometry. Refractive indices are given at λ = 1.55 μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode phase error as a function of mode propagation angle for different heights of the lateral slab (h).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode field of (a) the fully etched access waveguide and of (b) one of the modes of the shallowly etched multimode region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) CMRR of the fabricated device as a function of wavelength. (b) Phase error between the hybrid outputs as a function of wavelength.

Equations (1)

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β m = β 1 ( m 2 1 ) π / ( 3 L π ) ,

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