Abstract

Adhesion force sensed using tips on microcantilevers via an optical lever requires care to ensure that the tip alone contacts the liquid; is sensitive to high degrees of measurement error from departure from the laser spot; requires specialized optics and careful arrangement to produce a small laser probing spot; and limits the distance between cantilever and photodiode for increased force sensitivity. An alternative scheme, using microimaging electronic speckle pattern interferometry to monitor the deformation of a tipless microcantilever, necessitates that the beam be rigid enough to be independent of the drop location; is not amenable to very low adhesion force measure ment; and requires more complicated instrumentation. All these limitations can be effectively circumvented by a variable sensitivity scheme described here that harnesses the geometric properties of a dangling cantilever operating as an optical lever.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3711 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. J. Morris and B. A. Parviz, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 015022 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. W. Ng, Y. Yu, H. Y. Tan, and A. Neild, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Jiao, X. Huang, N.-T. Nguyen, and P. Abgrall, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 205 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Lin, A. Neild, T. W. Ng, and F. Shao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 034104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Lee, B. P. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, Nature 448, 338 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Bhushan and E. K. Her, Langmuir 26, 8207 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. T. Valentine, N. R. Guydosh, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, F. Braulio, N. Adrian, J. O. Andreasson, and S. M. Block, Opt. Lett. 33, 599 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. García-Valenzuela, Opt. Lett. 34, 2192 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. W. Ng and S. Thirunavukkarasu, Expt. Mech. 47, 841 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. A. J. Putman, B. G. de Groth, N. F. van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Li and Y. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 234104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, 5th ed. (Pearson, 2003).
  16. Y. Panduputra, T. W. Ng, A. Neild, and M. Robinson, Appl. Opt. 49, 3669 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

A. García-Valenzuela, Opt. Lett. 34, 2192 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lin, A. Neild, T. W. Ng, and F. Shao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 034104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Morris and B. A. Parviz, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 015022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, Y. Yu, H. Y. Tan, and A. Neild, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiao, X. Huang, N.-T. Nguyen, and P. Abgrall, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Valentine, N. R. Guydosh, B. Gutiérrez-Medina, F. Braulio, N. Adrian, J. O. Andreasson, and S. M. Block, Opt. Lett. 33, 599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lee, B. P. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, Nature 448, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ng and S. Thirunavukkarasu, Expt. Mech. 47, 841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. Li and Y. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 234104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. de Groth, N. F. van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, P.

Z. Jiao, X. Huang, N.-T. Nguyen, and P. Abgrall, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adrian, N.

Andreasson, J. O.

Aubry, N.

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhushan, B.

B. Bhushan and E. K. Her, Langmuir 26, 8207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

Braulio, F.

Cerda, E.

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, L.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Groth, B. G.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. de Groth, N. F. van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Jeu, W. H.

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emrick, T.

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, H.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Valenzuela, A.

Greve, J.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. de Groth, N. F. van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gutiérrez-Medina, B.

Guydosh, N. R.

Her, E. K.

B. Bhushan and E. K. Her, Langmuir 26, 8207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibbeler, R. C.

R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, 5th ed. (Pearson, 2003).

Hirtz, M.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.

Z. Jiao, X. Huang, N.-T. Nguyen, and P. Abgrall, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janjua, M.

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, Z.

Z. Jiao, X. Huang, N.-T. Nguyen, and P. Abgrall, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juszkiewicz, M.

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. P.

H. Lee, B. P. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, Nature 448, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, B. P. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, Nature 448, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenhert, S.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li and Y. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 234104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.

X. Lin, A. Neild, T. W. Ng, and F. Shao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 034104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menon, N.

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messersmith, P. B.

H. Lee, B. P. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, Nature 448, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerschbacher, B. M.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, C. J.

C. J. Morris and B. A. Parviz, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 015022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neild, A.

Y. Panduputra, T. W. Ng, A. Neild, and M. Robinson, Appl. Opt. 49, 3669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lin, A. Neild, T. W. Ng, and F. Shao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 034104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, Y. Yu, H. Y. Tan, and A. Neild, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T. W.

Y. Panduputra, T. W. Ng, A. Neild, and M. Robinson, Appl. Opt. 49, 3669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lin, A. Neild, T. W. Ng, and F. Shao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 034104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, Y. Yu, H. Y. Tan, and A. Neild, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng and S. Thirunavukkarasu, Expt. Mech. 47, 841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N.-T.

Z. Jiao, X. Huang, N.-T. Nguyen, and P. Abgrall, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nudurupati, S.

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osbourn, A. E.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panduputra, Y.

Parviz, B. A.

C. J. Morris and B. A. Parviz, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 015022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y.

X. Li and Y. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 234104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Putman, C. A. J.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. de Groth, N. F. van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, M.

Russell, T. P.

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sesma, A.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, F.

X. Lin, A. Neild, T. W. Ng, and F. Shao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 034104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singh, P.

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, H. Y.

T. W. Ng, Y. Yu, H. Y. Tan, and A. Neild, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thirunavukkarasu, S.

T. W. Ng and S. Thirunavukkarasu, Expt. Mech. 47, 841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, M. T.

van Hulst, N. F.

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. de Groth, N. F. van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, H. P.

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

T. W. Ng, Y. Yu, H. Y. Tan, and A. Neild, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Li and Y. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 234104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ng, Y. Yu, H. Y. Tan, and A. Neild, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Lin, A. Neild, T. W. Ng, and F. Shao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 034104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Expt. Mech. (1)

T. W. Ng and S. Thirunavukkarasu, Expt. Mech. 47, 841 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. A. J. Putman, B. G. de Groth, N. F. van Hulst, and J. Greve, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. J. Morris and B. A. Parviz, J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 015022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

B. Bhushan and E. K. Her, Langmuir 26, 8207 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lenhert, A. Sesma, M. Hirtz, L. Chi, H. Fuchs, H. P. Wiesmann, A. E. Osbourn, and B. M. Moerschbacher, Langmuir 23, 10216 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (1)

Z. Jiao, X. Huang, N.-T. Nguyen, and P. Abgrall, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 5, 205 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Lee, B. P. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, Nature 448, 338 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

N. Aubry, P. Singh, M. Janjua, and S. Nudurupati, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Huang, M. Juszkiewicz, W. H. de Jeu, E. Cerda, T. Emrick, N. Menon, and T. P. Russell, Science 317, 650 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. C. Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, 5th ed. (Pearson, 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Adhesion force studied using (a) sharp tip immersed into a droplet wherein the microcantilever deformation is sensed using an optical lever, (b) microcantilever attached to a liquid film wherein the deformation of the microcantilever is mapped using ESPI, and (c) proposed approach of using a millimeter dimension cantilever dangled to obviate flopping from gravity such that the cantilever length, laser spot read-out position, or distance of cantilever to the photodiode can be changed conveniently to vary measurement sensitivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots of (a) the minimum force detectable as a function of typical ranges of l and ratios of x / L for a typical microcantilever of E = 179 GPa (silicon), L = 460 μm , w = 50 μm , t = 2 μm , and Δ = 10 μm detectable on the photodiode and (b) the minimum force detectable as a function of typical ranges of l and ratios of x / L for a typical cantilever of E = 70 GPa (aluminum), L = 71.5 mm , w = 5 mm , t = 25 μm , and Δ = 10 μm detectable on the photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of photodiode reading as the substrate was moved to contact the liquid and then displaced in the reverse direction to use the elastic force of the cantilever for detachment. The inset depicts the voltage sign in relation to cantilever deformation. The plot on the left was based on L = 71.5 mm , w = 5 mm , x = 39.7 mm , and l = 86 mm , wherein voltage clipping occurred. The plot on the right is based on L = 50 mm , w = 5 mm , x = 18.2 mm , and l = 86 mm , wherein the maximum adhesion force could be determined from the + ve voltage peak.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ ( x ) = F 2 E I ( L 2 x 2 ) ,
F = E I Δ ( L 2 x 2 ) l .

Metrics