Abstract

Porous Si made from (110) Si wafers exhibits strong in-plane optical anisotropy (birefringence) in the visible and near-IR ranges. Oxidation of the birefringent porous Si results in the formation of birefringent porous silica. We demonstrate that the degree of the birefringence of porous silica can be controlled by the oxidation condition, and very small birefringence can be achieved. The smallest anisotropy of the refractive index (Δn) is 0.001, which is about ten times smaller than that of quartz. The small birefringence allows us to produce true zero-order wave plates operating in the UV range.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (2)

K. Nishida, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Kang, Q. F. Tan, X. L. Wang, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Express 18, 1695 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

E. Bisaillon, D. Tan, B. Faraji, A. G. Kirk, L. Chrowstowski, and D. V. Plant, Opt. Express 14, 2573 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. E. Yi, Y. B. Yan, H. T. Liu, Si-Lu, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Commun. 227, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Kunzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Y. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 26, 1265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. Q. Zhan, Opt. Commun. 176, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, G. M. Williams, P. W. Smith, and O. D. Dosser, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, and R. L. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

J. J. Yon, K. Barla, R. Herino, and G. Bomchil, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. C. Flanders, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Barla, K.

J. J. Yon, K. Barla, R. Herino, and G. Bomchil, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bisaillon, E.

Bomchil, G.

J. J. Yon, K. Barla, R. Herino, and G. Bomchil, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999).

Canham, L. T.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, G. M. Williams, P. W. Smith, and O. D. Dosser, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chrowstowski, L.

Chuang, S. F.

S. F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, and R. L. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Collins, S. D.

S. F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, and R. L. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A. G.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, G. M. Williams, P. W. Smith, and O. D. Dosser, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Day, G. W.

Diener, J.

K. Nishida, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Ishikura, M. Fujii, K. Nishida, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Opt. Express 16, 15531 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kunzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Y. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 26, 1265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

Dosser, O. D.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, G. M. Williams, P. W. Smith, and O. D. Dosser, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Faraji, B.

Flanders, D. C.

D. C. Flanders, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

Golovan, L. A.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gross, E.

Hale, P. D.

Hayashi, S.

K. Nishida, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Ishikura, M. Fujii, K. Nishida, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Opt. Express 16, 15531 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heckler, H.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

Herino, R.

J. J. Yon, K. Barla, R. Herino, and G. Bomchil, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ishikura, N.

Ivanov, D. A.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

Jin, G. F.

G. G. Kang, Q. F. Tan, X. L. Wang, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Express 18, 1695 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Yi, Y. B. Yan, H. T. Liu, Si-Lu, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Commun. 227, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, G. G.

Kashkarov, P. K.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

Kirk, A. G.

Kliger, D. S.

D. S. Kliger, L. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

Koch, F.

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Kunzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Y. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 26, 1265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kovalev, D.

N. Kunzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Y. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 26, 1265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Kunzner, N.

N. Kunzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Y. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 26, 1265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

Laakkonen, P.

Lewis, L. W.

D. S. Kliger, L. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

Liu, H. T.

D. E. Yi, Y. B. Yan, H. T. Liu, Si-Lu, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Commun. 227, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, V. A.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, K.

K. Nishida, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Ishikura, M. Fujii, K. Nishida, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Opt. Express 16, 15531 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohira, Y.

Paivanranta, B.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Passilly, N.

Petrov, G. I.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pietarinen, J.

Plant, D. V.

Polisski, G.

N. Kunzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Y. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 26, 1265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. E.

D. S. Kliger, L. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

Si-Lu,

D. E. Yi, Y. B. Yan, H. T. Liu, Si-Lu, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Commun. 227, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, G. M. Williams, P. W. Smith, and O. D. Dosser, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. L.

S. F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, and R. L. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

Tan, Q. F.

Tervo, J.

Timoshenko, V. Y.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Kunzner, D. Kovalev, J. Diener, E. Gross, V. Y. Timoshenko, G. Polisski, F. Koch, and M. Fujii, Opt. Lett. 26, 1265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

Williams, G. M.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, G. M. Williams, P. W. Smith, and O. D. Dosser, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999).

Yakovlev, V. V.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. B.

D. E. Yi, Y. B. Yan, H. T. Liu, Si-Lu, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Commun. 227, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yi, D. E.

D. E. Yi, Y. B. Yan, H. T. Liu, Si-Lu, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Commun. 227, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yon, J. J.

J. J. Yon, K. Barla, R. Herino, and G. Bomchil, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, W. Q.

W. Q. Zhan, Opt. Commun. 176, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. Nishida, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Flanders, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Golovan, D. A. Ivanov, V. A. Melnikov, V. Y. Timoshenko, A. M. Zheltikov, P. K. Kashkarov, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Kovalev, G. Polisski, J. Diener, H. Heckler, N. Kunzner, V. Y. Timoshenko, and F. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 916(2001).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Chuang, S. D. Collins, and R. L. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 675 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, G. M. Williams, P. W. Smith, and O. D. Dosser, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 493 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Yon, K. Barla, R. Herino, and G. Bomchil, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1042 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Q. Zhan, Opt. Commun. 176, 9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Yi, Y. B. Yan, H. T. Liu, Si-Lu, and G. F. Jin, Opt. Commun. 227, 49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

D. S. Kliger, L. W. Lewis, and C. E. Randall, Polarized Light in Optics and Spectroscopy (Academic, 1990).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed.(Cambridge University, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional and (b) plan-view TEM images of as-prepared birefringent porous Si and plan-view TEM images of porous silica oxidized at (c)  900 ° C and (d)  1000 ° C . Insets are electron diffraction patterns.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmittance at 400 nm as a function of oxidation temperature of porous Si and porous silica. The oxidation time is fixed to 3 h . (Inset) Transmittance spectra of as-prepared porous Si and porous silica oxidized at 990 ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup for the measurement of I to I ratio ( I / I ). (b)  I / I of as-prepared porous Si and porous silica oxidized from 800 ° C to 1000 ° C . (c) Oxidation temperature dependence of Δ n of porous Si ( 800 nm ) and porous silica ( 400 nm ). The data of the samples oxidized without a supporting device (squares) and those oxidized between two fused silica plates (circles) are shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)  I / I of porous silica oxidized at 1050 ° C in two fused silica plates. (b) Polar plots of the polarization patterns of incident (squares) and transmitted (circles) light at 350 nm .

Equations (1)

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δ = 2 π Δ n d λ ,

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