Abstract

We report on high-speed CH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging in turbulent diffusion flames using a multimode-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The OPO is pumped by the third-harmonic output of a multimode Nd:YAG cluster for direct signal excitation in the A-X (0,0) band of the CH radical. The lasing threshold, conversion efficiency, and linewidth are shown to depend on the number of pump passes in the ring cavity of the OPO. Single-shot CH PLIF images are acquired at 10kHz with excitation energy up to 6mJ/pulse at 431.1nm. Signal-to-noise ratios of 2535 are the highest yet reported for high-speed CH PLIF.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Alden, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, Appl. Opt. 41, 5002 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. B. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 34, 1309 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, C. B. Ivey, and P. M. Danehy, Appl. Opt. 50, A20(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Boxx, M. Stohr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Combust. Flame 157, 1510 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Jiang, R. A. Patton, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 767 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tanahashi, S. Taka, M. Shimura, and T. Miyauchi, Exp. Fluids 45, 323 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Sutton and J. F. Driscoll, Appl. Opt. 42, 2819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. W. Boyd, in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008), pp. 67–127.

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

I. Boxx, M. Stohr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Combust. Flame 157, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. B. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, Opt. Lett. 34, 1309 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Tanahashi, S. Taka, M. Shimura, and T. Miyauchi, Exp. Fluids 45, 323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

Alden, M.

Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Alden, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, Appl. Opt. 41, 5002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, X. S.

Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boxx, I.

I. Boxx, M. Stohr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Combust. Flame 157, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008), pp. 67–127.

Carter, C.

I. Boxx, M. Stohr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Combust. Flame 157, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, M.

Danehy, P. M.

Driscoll, J. F.

Gord, J. R.

Goritz, G.

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

Hultqvist, A.

Ivey, C. B.

Jiang, N.

Jiang, N. B.

Johansson, B.

Kiefer, J.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knebel, K.

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kristensson, E.

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

Li, B.

Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. S.

Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linvin, M.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, W.

I. Boxx, M. Stohr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Combust. Flame 157, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

Miller, J. D.

Miyauchi, T.

M. Tanahashi, S. Taka, M. Shimura, and T. Miyauchi, Exp. Fluids 45, 323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nygren, J.

Patton, R. A.

N. Jiang, R. A. Patton, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 767 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Alden, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, and B. Johansson, Appl. Opt. 41, 5002 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimura, M.

M. Tanahashi, S. Taka, M. Shimura, and T. Miyauchi, Exp. Fluids 45, 323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sjoholm, J.

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slipchenko, M.

Stohr, M.

I. Boxx, M. Stohr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Combust. Flame 157, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. W.

Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, J. A.

N. Jiang, R. A. Patton, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 767 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sutton and J. F. Driscoll, Appl. Opt. 42, 2819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taka, S.

M. Tanahashi, S. Taka, M. Shimura, and T. Miyauchi, Exp. Fluids 45, 323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanahashi, M.

M. Tanahashi, S. Taka, M. Shimura, and T. Miyauchi, Exp. Fluids 45, 323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M.

Zetterberg, J.

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Combust. Flame (2)

I. Boxx, M. Stohr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, Combust. Flame 157, 1510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, B. Li, Z. W. Sun, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Combust. Flame 157, 1087 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

M. Tanahashi, S. Taka, M. Shimura, and T. Miyauchi, Exp. Fluids 45, 323 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Sjoholm, E. Kristensson, M. Richter, M. Alden, G. Goritz, and K. Knebel, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, 025306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (2)

N. Jiang, R. A. Patton, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 767 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Li, J. Kiefer, J. Zetterberg, M. Linvin, A. Leipertz, X. S. Bai, and M. Alden, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 727 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, in Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008), pp. 67–127.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic including Nd:YAG laser cluster and optical layout. S, second-harmonic generation; T, third-harmonic generation; OPO, optical parametric oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) OPO schematic showing double-pass configuration and (b) effect of multiple pump passes on OPO conversion efficiency. Data are averaged over 100 laser shots. OC, output coupler; HR, high reflector; BD, beam dump.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CH 4 diffusion flame tuned (a) on and (b) off the CH resonance to mark CH and PAH fluorescence, and (c) CH fluorescence in CH 4 H 2 flame. Units of spatial scales are millimeters from fuel-tube exit and centerline.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Four consecutive CH PLIF images at 10 kHz . Highlighted region shows sufficient SNR and spatial resolution ( 50 μm ) to track CH-layer propagation and extinction. Units of spatial scales are millimeters from fuel-tube exit and centerline.

Equations (1)

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A S ( z ) = 1 2 A S ( 0 ) exp ( g z ) ,

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