Abstract

We present the smallest reported side-viewing needle probe for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design, fabrication, optical characterization, and initial application of a 30-gauge (outer diameter 0.31mm) needle probe are demonstrated. Extreme miniaturization is achieved by using a simple all-fiber probe design incorporating an angle-polished and reflection-coated fiber-tip beam deflector. When inserted into biological tissue, aqueous interstitial fluids reduce the probe’s inherent astigmatism ratio to 1.8, resulting in a working distance of 300μm and a depth-of-field of 550μm with beam diameters below 30μm. The needle probe was interfaced with an 840nm spectral-domain OCT system and the measured sensitivity was shown to be only 7dB lower than that of a comparable galvo-scanning sample arm configuration. 3D OCT images of lamb lungs were acquired over a depth range of 600μm, showing individual alveoli and bronchioles.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2011 (1)

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

Chang, S.

Chen, Z.

Chiu, S.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chudoba, C.

Curatolo, A.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, N.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farhang, S.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fishman, P. S.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flueraru, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hitzenberger, C.

Jafri, M. S.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Lee, S. W.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, H.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Mao, Y.

Y. Mao, S. Chang, S. Sherif, and C. Flueraru, Appl. Opt. 46, 5887 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S.

Munce, N. R.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noble, P. B.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Quirk, B. C.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, W. A.

Rohwer, R. G.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

Sherif, S.

Standish, B. A.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. M.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, R. S.

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, A.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

Yang, V. X. D.

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. S. Jafri, S. Farhang, R. S. Tang, N. Desai, P. S. Fishman, R. G. Rohwer, C. M. Tang, and J. M. Schmitt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

H. Li, B. A. Standish, A. Mariampillai, N. R. Munce, Y. Mao, S. Chiu, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the needle probe design. NCF: no-core fiber; GRIN: gradient-index fiber; SMF: single-mode fiber (b) Illustration of the astigmatism induced by the fiber cladding. (c) The angle-polished fiber probe after deposition of the metal coating. (d) Close-up view of the tip of the assembled 30G needle probe, showing the electrochemically etched side-window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output beam characteristics of the fabricated 30G needle probe. (a) Simulated and measured beam diameters in air. (b) Simulated beam diameters in water ( n = 1.329 ), as well as the calculated on-axis intensity of the astigmatic probe beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the 840 nm SD-OCT system. PC: polarization controller; A: attenuator; M: mirror. (b) SNR measurement of the 30G needle probe immersed in water at 2 μs exposure time. Solid line: A-scan showing the reflection from a water/glass interface (peak 5). Peak 2 is the fiber/water interface, see text for peaks 1,3,4. Dashed line with markers: SNR of the water/glass reflection peak versus distance from the fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT images of a lamb lung obtained with the 30G needle probe. (a) A single radial B-scan. (b) Cutaway view of a rendered volume consisting of 400 B-scans. The length of the cylindrical volume is 2 mm and the diameter is 1.66 mm . A: alveoli; B: bronchiole.

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