Abstract

A mid-IR wire-grid polarizer with a 500nm pitch was fabricated on a low toxic chalcogenide glass (Sb-Ge-Sn-S system) by the thermal imprinting of periodic grating followed by the thermal evaporation of Al metal. After imprinting, deposition of Al on the grating at an oblique angle produced a wire-grid polarizer. The fabricated polarizer showed polarization with TM transmittance greater than 60% at 59μm wavelengths and an extinction ratio greater than 20dB at 3.511μm wavelengths. This polarizer with a high extinction ratio can be fabricated more simply and less expensively than conventional IR polarizers.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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2010 (3)

2009 (3)

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamada, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, S. Akioka, Y. Yamagishi, and M. Saito, Appl. Opt. 48, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Z. Wu, P. E. Powers, A. M. Sarangan, and Q. Zhan, Opt. Lett. 33, 1653 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Takebe, M. Kuwabata, M. Komori, N. Fukugami, M. Soma, and T. Kusuura, Opt. Lett. 32, 2750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. Vandormael, S. Habraken, J. Loicq, C. Lenaerts, and D. Mawet, Proc. SPIE 6395, 63950L (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, H. C. Cheng, C. H. Lin, and T. C. Chu, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Saito, T. Kano, T. Seki and M. Miyagi, Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 709 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Ahn, S.

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akioka, S.

Bulla, D.

Chen, H. L.

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, H. C. Cheng, C. H. Lin, and T. C. Chu, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, H. C. Cheng, C. H. Lin, and T. C. Chu, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T. C.

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, H. C. Cheng, C. H. Lin, and T. C. Chu, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. Y.

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, H. C. Cheng, C. H. Lin, and T. C. Chu, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degzman, P. C.

Deng, X.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukugami, N.

Fukumi, K.

Graham, H. A.

Habraken, S.

D. Vandormael, S. Habraken, J. Loicq, C. Lenaerts, and D. Mawet, Proc. SPIE 6395, 63950L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

Henke, S.

M. Vollmer, S. Henke, D. Karstädt, K. P. Möllmann, and F. Pinno, in InfraMation 2004 Proceedings, Vol. 5, p. 287 (ITC, 2004).

Hirai, Y.

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hotou, N.

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. W.

Kano, T.

M. Saito, T. Kano, T. Seki and M. Miyagi, Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 709 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Karstädt, D.

M. Vollmer, S. Henke, D. Karstädt, K. P. Möllmann, and F. Pinno, in InfraMation 2004 Proceedings, Vol. 5, p. 287 (ITC, 2004).

Kasa, H.

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, H.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimoto, Y.

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamada, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, S. Akioka, Y. Yamagishi, and M. Saito, Appl. Opt. 48, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komori, M.

Konishi, T.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kusuura, T.

Kuwabata, M.

Lee, K.

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lenaerts, C.

D. Vandormael, S. Habraken, J. Loicq, C. Lenaerts, and D. Mawet, Proc. SPIE 6395, 63950L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, H. C. Cheng, C. H. Lin, and T. C. Chu, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loicq, J.

D. Vandormael, S. Habraken, J. Loicq, C. Lenaerts, and D. Mawet, Proc. SPIE 6395, 63950L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Madsen, C. K.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mawet, D.

D. Vandormael, S. Habraken, J. Loicq, C. Lenaerts, and D. Mawet, Proc. SPIE 6395, 63950L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J. T.

Mihara, S.

M. Saito, T. Yamamoto, I. Yamada, J. Nishii, S. Mihara, and M. Urano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 052503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

M. Saito, T. Kano, T. Seki and M. Miyagi, Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 709 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Möllmann, K. P.

M. Vollmer, S. Henke, D. Karstädt, K. P. Möllmann, and F. Pinno, in InfraMation 2004 Proceedings, Vol. 5, p. 287 (ITC, 2004).

Mori, T.

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

M. Saito, T. Yamamoto, I. Yamada, J. Nishii, S. Mihara, and M. Urano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 052503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamada, K. Fukumi, J. Nishii, and M. Saito, Opt. Lett. 35, 3111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yamada, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, S. Akioka, Y. Yamagishi, and M. Saito, Appl. Opt. 48, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

Park, H.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, E. W.

Pinno, F.

M. Vollmer, S. Henke, D. Karstädt, K. P. Möllmann, and F. Pinno, in InfraMation 2004 Proceedings, Vol. 5, p. 287 (ITC, 2004).

Powers, P. E.

Saito, M.

I. Yamada, K. Fukumi, J. Nishii, and M. Saito, Opt. Lett. 35, 3111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Saito, T. Yamamoto, I. Yamada, J. Nishii, S. Mihara, and M. Urano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 052503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamada, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, S. Akioka, Y. Yamagishi, and M. Saito, Appl. Opt. 48, 316 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Saito, T. Kano, T. Seki and M. Miyagi, Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 709 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sarangan, A. M.

Sciortino, P.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

M. Saito, T. Kano, T. Seki and M. Miyagi, Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 709 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solmaz, M.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soma, M.

Takebe, H.

Tamura, T.

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Umetani, M.

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urano, M.

M. Saito, T. Yamamoto, I. Yamada, J. Nishii, S. Mihara, and M. Urano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 052503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vandormael, D.

D. Vandormael, S. Habraken, J. Loicq, C. Lenaerts, and D. Mawet, Proc. SPIE 6395, 63950L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

M. Vollmer, S. Henke, D. Karstädt, K. P. Möllmann, and F. Pinno, in InfraMation 2004 Proceedings, Vol. 5, p. 287 (ITC, 2004).

Walters, F.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. J.

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Yamada, I.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, Y.

Yamamoto, T.

M. Saito, T. Yamamoto, I. Yamada, J. Nishii, S. Mihara, and M. Urano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 052503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, P.

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, T.

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. B.

Zhan, Q.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. J. Wang, L. Chen, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, F. Liu, F. Walters, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Liu, P. Sciortino, and X. Deng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

K. Yamada, M. Umetani, T. Tamura, Y. Tanaka, H. Kasa, and J. Nishii, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 4267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

M. Saito, T. Kano, T. Seki and M. Miyagi, Infrared Phys. Technol. 35, 709 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

T. Yoshikawa, T. Konishi, M. Nakajima, H. Kikuta, H. Kawata, and Y. Hirai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2939 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 606 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Mori, Y. Kimoto, H. Kasa, K. Kintaka, N. Hotou, J. Nishii, and Y. Hirai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 06FH20 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Saito, T. Yamamoto, I. Yamada, J. Nishii, S. Mihara, and M. Urano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 052503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, H. C. Cheng, C. H. Lin, and T. C. Chu, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 893 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Ahn, K. Lee, J. Kim, S. H. Kim, J. Park, S. Lee, and P. Yoon, Nanotechnology 16, 1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Vandormael, S. Habraken, J. Loicq, C. Lenaerts, and D. Mawet, Proc. SPIE 6395, 63950L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

http://www.specac.com/product_optics_index.asp.

M. Vollmer, S. Henke, D. Karstädt, K. P. Möllmann, and F. Pinno, in InfraMation 2004 Proceedings, Vol. 5, p. 287 (ITC, 2004).

http://www.isuzuglass.com/development/iir.html.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the fabrication process of the wire-grid polarizer. (a) After a WSi layer is deposited on a SiC substrate using the sputtering method, a photoresist is coated onto the WSi layer, and a stripe beam of the He Cd laser ( 325 nm wavelength) is irradiated using the two-beam interference method; (b) a photoresist grating is patterned by the development process; (c), (d) the WSi layer and SiC are etched using RIE; (e) a one-dimensional pattern on the surface of the SiC mold is imprinted on chalcogenide glass; (f) Al was deposited on the grating at an oblique angle by thermal evaporation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the SiC mold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectrum and (b) complex refractive indices, n and κ, of the IIR-SF1. The thickness of the sample is 2 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of the chalcogenide glass deformed by the imprinting process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of the chalcogenide glass deposited with an Al grating ( 130 nm thickness) by evaporation on the substrate depicted in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Transmission spectra of the fabricated element and a chalcogenide glass substrate ( 2 mm thickness). TE and TM indicate the polarization directions. (b) Extinction ratio of the element.

Equations (1)

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Λ = λ F 2 sin θ ,

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