Abstract

An external cavity using a binary phase grating has been developed to achieve coherent combining of five quantum-cascade lasers emitting at 4.65μm. The grating phase profile is designed to combine five beams of equal intensities into a single beam with a good efficiency (75%). The performances of this cavity concerning output power, stability, combining efficiency and beam quality are detailed. We report a CW combining efficiency of 66% corresponding to an output power of 0.5W with a good beam quality (M2<1.6).

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Faist, Science 264, 553 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. G. Lee, J. Kansky, A. K. Goyal, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, A. Sanchez, and F. Capasso, Opt. Express 17, 16216 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Bloom, C. Larat, E. Lallier, M. Carras, and X. Marcadet, Opt. Lett. 35, 1917 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 888 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Dammann, Opt. Acta 24, 505 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Opt. 26, 4391 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Cao, J. Hou, Q. Lu, and X. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1187 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. D. Goodno, C-C. Shih, and J. E. Rothenberg, Opt. Express 18, 25403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, Opt. Rev. 12, 445 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Bloom, C. Larat, E. Lallier, M. Carras, and X. Marcadet, Opt. Lett. 35, 1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Goodno, C-C. Shih, and J. E. Rothenberg, Opt. Express 18, 25403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cao, J. Hou, Q. Lu, and X. Xu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, Opt. Rev. 12, 445 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Faist, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

1986

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. Dammann, Opt. Acta 24, 505 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aidam, R.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M. A.

Bisson, J.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, Opt. Rev. 12, 445 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, G.

Bronner, W.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Capasso, F.

Carras, M.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, Opt. Acta 24, 505 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

Faist, J.

J. Faist, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, F.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Goodno, G. D.

Goyal, A. K.

Höfer, B.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

Hugger, S.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kansky, J.

Köhler, K.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Kouznetsov, D.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, Opt. Rev. 12, 445 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lallier, E.

Larat, C.

Lee, B. G.

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Opt. 26, 4391 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lösch, R.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

Mann, C.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Manz, C.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

Matthes, A.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

Raab, M.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rattunde, M.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Romasew, E.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rösener, B.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Sanchez, A.

Schulz, N.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, C-C.

Shirakawa, A.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, Opt. Rev. 12, 445 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Opt. 26, 4391 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tholl, H.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tholl, H. D.

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, S.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, Opt. Rev. 12, 445 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Opt. 26, 4391 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yang, Q.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Leger, G. J. Swanson, and W. B. Veldkamp, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Acta

H. Dammann, Opt. Acta 24, 505 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S. Hugger, R. Aidam, W. Bronner, F. Fuchs, R. Lösch, Q. Yang, J. Wagner, E. Romasew, M. Raab, H. Tholl, B. Höfer, and A. Matthes, Opt. Eng. 49, 111111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

D. Kouznetsov, J. Bisson, A. Shirakawa, and K. Ueda, Opt. Rev. 12, 445 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Wagner, N. Schulz, B. Rösener, M. Rattunde, Q. Yang, F. Fuchs, C. Manz, W. Bronner, C. Mann, K. Köhler, M. Raab, E. Romasew, and H. D. Tholl, Proc. SPIE 7115, 71150A(2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Faist, Science 264, 553 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. QCL i : HR-AR QCL, CL: collimation lens, DG: Dammann grating,OC: output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Left) SEM view of the DG before AR coating. (Right) calculated (blue) and measured (red) orders intensities of the fabricated DG with its AR coating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power versus P single : circles, P CBC ; green solid curve, P available ; blue solid curve, P potential . Inset: combining efficiency η versus P single .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Blue: calculated orders intensities of a DG lit by five beams with the proper relative phases. Red: measured orders intensities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical spectrum of a single QCL (blue) and of the external cavity with the DG (red).

Metrics